Tuesday, October 30, 2007

ၿမၾကည္


ဆီေဆး
ေရးဆြဲ - ၂၀၀၂-ခုႏွစ္

ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ တစ္ခုလံုးက မဲေမွာင္ တိတ္ဆိတ္ေနသည္။ ဆယ္ေပ ပတ္လည္ အခန္း အၿဖဴေရာင္ နံရံ၏ ေၿဖာ႕ေတာ႕ေတာ႕ ၿဖာထြက္ေနေသာ မႈံၿပၿပ အေရာင္သည္ ညဥ္႕ ကို အံတုေနသည္႕နယ္။ ညဥ္႕၏ ပိ္န္းပိ္တ္ နက္ေမွာင္မႈက တၿဖည္းၿဖည္းႏွင္႕ ထုထည္ၾကီးမားစြား ဖိသိပ္လာ ေသာ္လည္း အၿဖဴေရာင္ အခန္းငယ္အား လြမ္းမိုးမသြားႏိုင္ခဲ႕။ ေလာက၀န္က်င္ တစ္ခုလံုး၏ သက္ရွိ အရာမ်ား တိုးတိတ္ၿဖည္းညင္းစြာ တစ္စတစ္စႏွင္႕ ည၏ အေမွာင္ထု ေအာက္တြင္ က်ရံႈးသြားၾကေသာ္လည္း ၿမၾကည္ တစ္ေယာက္ ၾကံၾကံခံ ေနစဲပါ။ လေရာင္ ၾကယ္ေရာင္မ်ား ေပ်ာက္ကြယ္ေနေသာ ဤ ကဲ႕သို႕ေသာ ညမ်ိဳးသည္ ရက္စက္လြန္းတတ္သည္။ လမင္း အလင္းရွိမွ ပြင္႕ေသာ ပန္းမ်ား ညိုးငယ္စြာ ပြင္႕ခ်ပ္လႊာမ်ားကို သိမ္းဆည္းထားၾကရ၏။ ဖားေအာ္သံ၊ ပုရစ္ေအာ္သံတို႕ လည္း ဆိပ္သုဥ္း ေပ်ာက္ကြယ္ကုန္၏။ အားနည္းေသာ အလင္းမိိွိန္မွိန္မ်ားအားလံုး ည၏ ၀ါးၿမိဳၿခင္းကို ခံရ၏။ ညဥ္႕၏ အဆံုးစြန္း တိတ္ဆိတ္မႈ ႏွင္႕ အဆံုးစြန္း ေမွာင္မိုက္မႈကို ၿမၾကည္ တစ္ေယာက္သာ တိတ္တဆိတ္ ထိုင္၍ အံတုေနသည္။ ေသခ်ာ နားေထာင္ၾကည္႕ပါမွ ခတ္ဟဟေလး ပြင္႕ေနသည္႕ တစ္ခုတည္းေသာ တစ္ခါးခ်ပ္မွ ေလတိုးသံ သဲ႕သဲ႕ကို ၾကားရသည္။ အခန္းထဲမွ ပူေႏြးေသာ ေလထုႏွင္႕ ညင္သာစြာ တစိမ္႕စိမ္႕ ခ်ဥ္းနင္း၀င္ေရာက္လာေသာ အၿပင္မွာ ညေလဆိုင္တို႕ ေရာယွက္က အလြန္ သက္ေတာင္႕သက္သာရွိေသာ အပူခ်ိန္ကို ဖန္တီးထားသည္။

ၿမၾကည္ ပိုင္ေသာ ဤအၿဖဴေရာင္ အခန္းငယ္သည္ ရိုးစင္းလြန္းလွသည္။ ၿမၾကည္ အရပ္ တစ္ၿမင္႕စာ တစ္ခါးေပါက္တစ္ခု ႏွင္႕ အၿဖဴေရာင္ေလးဘက္ေလးတန္ နံရံမ်ားနွင္႕ လိုက္ဖက္ညီစြာ အၿဖဴေရာင္ ခံုတစ္လံုးသာရွိသည္။ တစ္ခုတည္းေသာ အခန္းေထာင္႕ တစ္ေနရာတြင္ တစ္၀က္တစ္ပ်က္ ဆြဲလက္စ ပိတ္ဖ်င္ ပန္ခ်ီးကား တစ္ခ်ပ္က ေထာင္လ်က္ရွိကာ အခ်ိန္ကာလၾကာၿမင္႕စြာ လ်စ္လ်ဳရႈထားၿခင္း ခံေနရေၾကာင္းကို ေၿခာက္ေသြ႕ေနၿပီၿဖစ္ေသာ ဆီေဆးေတာင္႕မ်ား သက္ေသၿပေနသည္။ တ၀က္တၿပတ္ႏွင္႕ ဆြဲလက္စ ပန္ခ်ီကားထဲမွ ၀လႅစၥလစ္ မိန္းမပံုသည္ ၿမၾကည္ပင္ ၿဖစ္သည္။ ဤအၿဖဴေရာင္ အခန္းထဲသို႕ ၿမၾကည္ ေရာက္တိုင္း အ၀တ္အစားအားလံုးကို ခြ်တ္ခ်ထားကာ ပင္ကို ပကတိ လြတ္လပ္စြာ ေနေလ႕ရွိသည္။ အခန္းငယ္သည္ ၿမၾကည္၏ လြတ္လပ္မႈကို ကာကြယ္ရာ၊ ကိုယ္ပိုင္ သီးၿခားကမၻာ တစ္ခုၿဖစ္သည္။ အဆံုးစြန္း လြတ္ေၿမာက္ရာ ႏွင္႕ အဆံုးစြန္း လြတ္လပ္ရာလည္း ၿဖစ္သည္။ ဒီအခန္းကို ၿမၾကည္ စိတ္တိုင္းက် ၿပင္ဆင္ထားခဲ႕သည္။ ၿပင္ဆင္သည္ဟု ဆိုရာထက္ ထိုအခန္းထဲတြင္ ရွိေနေသာ ရုပ္ၿမင္သံၾကားစက္၊ တယ္လီဖုန္း၊ ကတ္ဆက္ အစရွိသည္႕ အသံုးအေဆာင္ ပစၥည္းမ်ားကို ထိုအခန္းထဲမွာ ထုတ္ၿပစ္ လုိက္ၿခင္းၿဖစ္သည္။ ယခင္က ထိုအခန္း သည္ အလြန္းေကာင္းသည္ ဟု ေၿပာၾကကာ ေနခ်င္ၾကသည္႕ လူမ်ား တန္းစီေနၾကသည္။ ၾကိဳတင္၍ စားရင္းေပးထားၾကသည္။ ကံေကာင္းေထာက္မစြာ ထုိလူမ်ားကို ေက်ာ္လြန္၍ ၿမၾကည္ သည္အခန္းကို ရခဲ႕သည္။ရေတာ႕လည္း ရသည္႕ ေန႕မွာပင္ အခန္းရွင္းလင္းေရးလုပ္ခဲ႕သည္။ အခန္း၏ သံုပံုတစ္ပံုမွ် ေနရာယူထားေသာ ဘုရားစဥ္ၾကီးအား အၿခားအခန္းကို ေၿပာင္းေရႊ႕လိုက္သည္။ ထုိင္စရာ ထိုင္ခံုတစ္လံုးသာ ခ်န္၍ ရွိရွိသမွ် အရာမ်ားကိုအၿခား သူမ်ားအားေပးလိုက္သည္။ ၿမၾကည္ မည္သည္႕အရာကိုမွ် မတြယ္တာခ်င္။ ၾကီးမားေသာ စာနာမႈႏွင္႕ နားလည္မႈတို႕ ေအာက္တြင္ တြယ္တာမႈသည္ ငုတ္လ်ိဳးေနရသည္။ ထိုကဲ႕သို႕ ၀လႅစၥလစ္ႏွင္႕လြတ္လပ္စြာ ေနရသည္႕ လြတ္လပ္ၿခင္းမ်ိဳးကို ၾကိဳက္သည္။ လံုၿခံဳမႈကို လြတ္လပ္စြာ ခံစားရသည္။ ဤအခန္းသည္ ခ်ည္ေႏွာင္မႈတို႕ လြတ္ေၿမာက္ရာ၊ ငွက္ငယ္တစ္ေကာင္၏ အဆံုးအစမဲ႕ ေလဟာနယ္တစ္ခုပါပဲေလ။

ခံုေပၚတြင္ ထိုင္ေနမိသည္မွာ အေတာ္ပင္ ၾကာသြားသည္။ ဆြဲလက္စ ပန္ခ်ီကားကို လည္း အၿပီးသတ္ရန္ စိတ္ကမပါေတာ႕။ သဘာ၀က ဖန္တီးထားေသာ မိန္းမပီသသည္႕ ခႏၶာကိုယ္ အခ်ိဳးအဆစ္ ေကာက္ေၾကာင္းမ်ားကို ေဖၚထုတ္ရန္ ၾကိဳးစားခဲ႕သည္။ မေအာင္ၿမင္။ ခႏၶာကိုယ္အား ဖံုးအုပ္ကာကြယ္ထားေသာ အေႏွာင္အဖြဲ႕မွ လြတ္ေၿမာက္သြားရန္ ရွိသမွ် အ၀တ္အစားမ်ားကို ခြ်တ္ခ်ထားခဲ႕သည္။ သို႕ရာတြင္ အခ်ိဳးအဆစ္ ေကာက္ေၾကာင္းမ်ားက လူသားတစ္ေယာက္ ခံစားေနရသည္႕ ရင္းတြင္မွ နာက်င္မႈ၊ ေပ်ာ္ရႊင္မႈ၊ မြန္းက်ပ္မႈ၊ လြတ္ေၿမာင္မႈတို႕ကို ထိုပိတ္စမ်ားေပၚတြင္ မေဖၚၿပႏိုင္ခဲ႕ေခ်။ ကိုယ္႕မွာ အတၱေတြ သိပ္မ်ားေနၿပီလား။ ငယ္စဥ္အခါက ကေလးငယ္တစ္ေယာက္၏ ရိုးသားစြာ ေဖၚၿပတတ္မႈေတြကို ၾကီးၿပင္းလာေတာ႕ အတၱေတြက နင္းေၿခဖ်က္ဆီးၿပစ္လိုက္ၿပီလား။

ၿမၾကည္ ဘုရား မရွိခိုးတာ ၁၀-ႏွစ္ ေက်ာ္ၾကာၿပီေကာ။ ငယ္စဥ္က အဖြားသည္ ဘုရားစာမ်ားကို ညေနတိုင္း အၿမဲရြတ္ ေလ႕ရွိသည္။ အဖြားကို သတိရတိုင္း အဖြားအၿမဲရြတ္ေလ႕ရွိေသာ ဘုရားစာမ်ားကို တခါတရံ သတိရမိသည္။ ကိုကို ႏွင္႕ အတူေနစဥ္ တုန္းက ကိုကိုက ၿမေလး ကို ကိုကို ကဲ႕သို ဘာသာေရးကို ယံုၾကည္သူၿဖစ္ေအာင္ လုပ္ေပးမည္ ဟု ေၿပာဘူးသည္။ ၿမၾကည္ ကိုကို ကို ၿပံဳးပဲ ၿပံဳးၿပခဲ႕သည္။ ထိုစဥ္က ကိုကိုသည္ ညေနတိုင္း တစ္နာရီခန္႕ ဘုရားရွိခိုးသည္။

ထိုသို႕ ကိုကို ဘုရားရွစ္ခိုး ေနၿပီဆိုလွ်င္ ၿမၾကည္ ဤအခန္းေလးထဲသို႕ လာၿပီး ပန္ခ်ီဆြဲေနေလ႕ရွိသည္။ ကိုကိုသည္ ၿမၾကည္ကို ခ်စ္လြန္းသည္ဟု ၿမၾကည္ထင္သည္။ သူ႕အတြက္ လုပ္စရာအလုပ္မ်ား မရွိေတာ႕ဘူး ဆိုလွ်င္ သူ႕အနားတြင္ ၿမၾကည္ ရွိေနေစခ်င္သည္။ ဒါကို ကိုကိုက ၿမၾကည္ကို ခ်စ္လြန္းလို႕ပါဟု ေၿပာသည္။ ဒါေပမယ္႕ ကိုကို႕မွာ အတၱေတြမ်ားလြန္းသည္ ဟုၿမၾကည္ထင္သည္။ တခါတရံ ၿမၾကည္ ကိုကို အိပ္ေနသည္႕ အခ်ိန္ ကိုကို ဖတ္သည္႕ တရားစာအုပ္ထဲတြင္ ကိုကို႕ အခ်စ္အတၱေတြ ေလ်ာ႕ပါးအံုးဟု ေၿဖ႕စြက္ေရးေလ႕ရွိသည္။ ၿမၾကည္၏ ကိုယ္ပိုင္ အခ်ိန္၊ မိမိ ပိုင္ဆိုင္ရာ လြတ္လပ္မႈေလးေတြကို ၿမၾကည္ လိုခ်င္သည္။ ကိုကိုႏွင္႕ ခြဲခြာခဲ႕သည္မွာ ႏွစ္အေတာ္ပင္ ၾကာေလၿပီ။ ကိုကိုက လက္ထပ္ခ်င္သည္ဟု ေၿပာသည္႕ေန႕တြင္ ၿမၾကည္ တုန္လႈပ္ေၿခာက္ၿခားခဲ႕သည္။ မိမိ၏ လြတ္လပ္မႈေတြ အားလံုး ဒီလူတစ္ေယာက္လံုးဆီမွာ ေပးဆပ္ရေတာ႕မွာပါလားဟု။ ထိုေန႕ပဲ ကိုကို ႏွင္႕ စိတ္မေကာင္းၿခင္းၾကီးစြာ လမ္းခြဲ ခဲ႕ၾကသည္။ ကိုကို ငိုပါသည္။ ၿမၾကည္နားလည္ေပးပါသည္။ လူတစ္ေယာက္သည္ မည္မွ် တရားဓမၼမ်ားလုပ္ေဆာင္ပါေစ ထိုလူသည္အသက္ရွင္ေနသမွ် လူသားဆန္စြာ ခံစားခ်က္မ်ားကို ခံစားေနရအံုးမည္သာ။ ၿမၾကည္လည္း ခံစားခဲ႕ရပါသည္။

ထို႕ေနာက္ ၿမၾကည္ ဘ၀သည္ ၾကမ္းတမ္းခဲ႕သည္။ ၿမၾကည္ ေမွာင္ခို ကုန္ကူး အလုပ္ လုပ္ခဲ႕သည္။ မိမိအား ေစာ္ကားရန္ၾကံစည္ေသာ လူတစ္ေယာက္အား သတ္မႈႏွင္႕ ေထာင္က်ခဲ႕သည္။ ေထာင္မွ ထြက္လာေသာအခါ ၿပည္တန္ဆာ အလုပ္ လုပ္ခဲ႕သည္။ ၿပည္႕တန္ဆာ လုပ္ခဲ႕စဥ္က ရခဲ႕ေသာ ေရာဂါ ေ၀ဒနာကို ႏွစ္ရွည္လမ်ား ေဆးရုံေပၚတြင္ ကုသခဲ႕ရသည္။ အကယ္၍သာ ကိုကို လိုခ်င္သည္႕ အိမ္ေထာင္ကို အတူတကြ ထူေထာင္ခဲ႕ပါက ထိုကဲ႕သို႕ ေသာ ဘ၀ၾကမ္းမ်ားကို ေတြ႕ရလိမ္႕မည္မဟုတ္။ သာယာေၿဖာင္႕ၿဖဴး ေသာ ဘ၀ကို ကိုကိုႏွင္႕ အတူလက္တြဲ၍ ေပ်ာ္ရႊင္ေနရမည္သာ။ သို႔ရာတြင္ ၿမၾကည္ ေက်နပ္သည္။ မိမိ ၿဖတ္သန္းခဲ႕သည္ ဘ၀သည္ မ်ဥ္းေၿဖာင္႕ တစ္ေၾကာင္းတည္း မၿဖစ္ခဲ႕။ အနိမ္႕အၿမင္႕ လိႈင္းတြန္႕မ်ားၿဖင္႕ ၿပည္႕နက္ေနေသာ ဘ၀ကို ၿမၾကည္ ေက်နပ္သည္။ ထိုဘ၀က ရရွိေသာ ခံစားခ်က္မ်ား သည္ ယေန႕ ၿပန္လည္ ဆန္းသပ္ၾကည္႕လ်င္ အိမ္မက္ပမာ။ သို႕ရာတြင္ ၿမၾကည္ ရွင္သန္ခဲ႕သည္။ ထိုအရာမ်ားသည္ ခါးသည္းသည္ဟု ဆိုေပမယ္႕ ယခုအခါ ခ်ိဳၿမိန္သည္။ ထိုခံစားခ်က္မ်ား သည္ ၿမၾကည္ ဆိုသည္႕ လူတစ္ေယာက္ ရွင္သန္ေနေစရန္ ေမာင္းႏွင္ေပးေနေသာ စက္ကိရိယာမ်ား၊ စက္သြားမ်ား ၿဖစ္ၾကသည္။ ၿမၾကည္ သည္ အစဥ္ ေရွ႕သို႕ ဆက္ေနမည္႕ မိန္မစား။ ၿမၾကည္ ငိုလွ်င္ ရင္ထဲမွာ ငိုသည္။ ၿမၾကည္ နာက်င္လွ်င္ ရင္ထဲမွာ နာက်င္သည္။ အသက္ၾကီးလာသည္႕ အတြက္ ငယ္ငယ္ ကေလးဘ၀လို ဟက္ဟက္ပက္ပက္ လြတ္လပ္စြာ ရယ္ေမာတတ္ၿခင္း မရွိေတာ႕။ တခါတရံ အၿပစ္ကင္းစင္စြာ ကေလးကဲ႕သို ဟားတိုက္ရယ္လိုက္ခ်င္သည္။ သို႕ရာတြင္ ထိုကဲ႕သို မရယ္တတ္ေတာ႕။ ေလာက၍ ၿဖစ္လာသည္႕ အေၿခအေန အေကာင္းအဆိုးတို႕အားလံုးကို ေၾကာင္းက်ိဳးမ်ားဆက္စပ္ နားလည္းေပးထားၿခင္းသည္ ၿမၾကည္အား လိုအပ္သည္ထက္ တည္ၿငိမ္ ရင္႕က်က္ေစသည္။

ထုိင္ရာမွ ထ၍ အခန္းေထာင္႕တြင္ ပံုထားေသာ အၿဖဴေရာင္ ၀တ္ရံုကို ေကာက္၀တ္လိုက္သည္။ အခန္းထဲတြင္ ထိုင္ေနတာ ေတာ္ေတာ္ ၾကာသြားၿပီပဲဟု ေတြးလိုက္မိသည္။ ၿပည္႕တန္ဆာမ တစ္ေယာက္အတြက္ ဤအခန္းသည္ လံုၿခံဳသည္။ လြတ္ေၿမာက္မႈကို ေပးစြမ္းႏိုင္သည္။ ဤအခန္း၏ တံခါး တဖက္ၿခား သည္ အၿခား ကမၱာ။ ၿမၾကည္ လူအသစ္မ်ားကို ေတြ႕ရအံုးမည္။ ေၿပာင္းလဲေနေသာ လူ႕အဖြဲ႕အစည္းတြင္ လိုက္ေလ်ာညီစြာ ရွင္သန္ရအံုးမည္။ မ်က္ႏွာဖံုးေၿမာက္ၿမားစြာကို ၀ယ္ယူရအံုးမည္။ တစ္ခါတစ္ရံ လူေတြအား မုန္းမိသည္။ ထိုအခါ လူအားလံုး ကိုကိုကဲ႕သို ၿမင္႕ၿမတ္သူ ၿဖစ္ပါေစဟု ဆုေတာင္းမိသည္။ မၿဖစ္ႏိုင္ပါ။ သို႕ေပမယ္႕ လူေတြအမ်ားၾကားတြင္ ၿမၾကည္ ဆိုေသာ ၿပည္႕တန္ဆာမ တစ္ေယာက္ ရွိေနအံုးမည္သာ။ ဤအရာသည္ အလြန္တရာခန္းနားၾကီးက်ယ္ေသာ ကိုကို၏ အေတြးအေခၚမ်ားထက္ မွန္ကန္ေပအံုးမည္။

အနႏၱေမတၱာၿဖင္႕
ဘေကာင္း

Monday, October 22, 2007

ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသစ္မွ ေလေဘးေလာက


ယေန႕ ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသစ္ ေလေဘးတန္းသည္ လြန္ခဲ႕ေသာ ၁၉-ႏွစ္၊ အႏွစ္ ၂၀ ခန္႕က အိမ္ေတာ္ရာ ဘုရား ေလေဘးတန္းမွ ေၿပာင္းေရႊ႕ခဲ႕ၿခင္းၿဖစ္ပါသည္။ အိမ္ေတာ္ရာ ဘုရားမွ ေလေဘးတန္းၾကီး ေရႊ႕ေၿပာင္းရေတာ႕မည္ဟု ဆိုသည္ႏွင္႕ ႏွစ္ေပါင္းမ်ား စြာ အရိုးစြဲ လုပ္ကိုင္ ေနၾကေသာ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္၏ မိဘမ်ား အပါအ၀င္ ေလေဘးေလာကမွ လူမ်ား ဒုကၡေရာက္ၾကပါသည္။ တစ္ခ်ိဳ႕ ပိုက္ဆံ တတ္ႏိုင္သူမ်ားသည္ ေလေဘးလုပ္ငန္းကို စြန္႕ခြာကာ တရုတ္တန္းေစ်း(ယေန႕ေခတ္ မႏၱေလး ရတနာဘံုေစ်း) သို႕ေၿပာင္းေရႊ႕လုပ္ကိုင္ၾကပါသည္။ ထိုစဥ္က ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ မိခင္ၾကီးသည္ ရွိစုမဲ႕ ေငြေၾကး အင္းအားကို ၿခစ္ခ်ဳပ္ စုစည္းကာ အသစ္ေၿပာင္းေရႊ႕ရမည္႕ ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသစ္ ဆိုင္ခန္းကို ၀ယ္ယူရပါသည္။ ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသစ္ ဟု ေခၚဆိုရသည္မွာ ေလးေဘးတန္းမေရာက္ခင္ က ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသည္ ရွိႏွင္႕ ေနၿပီသားပါ။ ထိုေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသည္ အိမ္ရွင္မမ်ား အားထားရေသာ အသီးအရြက္ အသားငါးမ်ား ေရာင္းခ်ေသာ သာမန္ ေစ်းကေလး တစ္ခုသာၿဖစ္သည္။ ထိုေစ်းႏွင္႕ ယွဥ္၍ ေလေဘးတန္းအတြက္ ေစ်းရံုတစ္ခုတည္ေဆာက္ေသာ အခါ ေစ်းရံုအသစ္ကို ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသစ္ ဟု ေခၚတြင္လိုက္ၾကသည္။ ထို ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းႏွင္႕ ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသစ္ ႏွစ္ခုစလုံးသည္ ေရႊတစ္ေခ်ာင္ေၿမာင္း ေဘးတြင္ တည္ရွိၾကပါသည္။

ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသစ္သို႕ ေၿပာင္းေရႊ႕ ရသည္ အခါတြင္ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္သည္ ၁၀-တန္းစာေမးပြဲအား ေၿဖဆိုၿပီးခါစ ၿဖစ္ကာ မိဘမ်ားအား ကူညီ၍ ေစ်းလိုက္ေပးရပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္သည္ မနက္ေစာေစာ ၇-နာရီခန္႕ အိမ္မွ ေစ်းသို႕ စက္ဘီကေလးႏွင္႕ ထြက္ကာ ဆိုင္ခင္းရပါသည္။ အ၀တ္အထည္မ်ားကို သင္႕တင္႕ေလ်ာက္ပတ္သည္႕ ေနရာမ်ားတြင္ အတန္းမ်ား တန္းကာ ခင္းက်င္းၿပင္ဆင္ရပါသည္။ ထုိေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသစ္ ေလေဘးတန္းသို႕ ေရာက္ေသာအခါ ယခင္ အိမ္ေတာ္ရာ ဘုရားမွ သိကြ်မ္းခဲ႕ေသာ မိတ္ေဆြေဟာင္းမ်ားႏွင္ ကြဲကြာသြားခဲ႕သည္။ ေလးေဘးလုပ္ငန္း အေရာင္းအ၀ယ္လုပ္သည္႕ လူဦးေရလည္း နည္းသြားခဲ႕သည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္အတြက္ မွတ္မွတ္ရရ ေၿပာင္းလဲၿခင္းသည္ မနက္တိုင္း ဆိုင္ခင္းခ်ိန္တြင္ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္ၾကိဳက္ႏွစ္သက္ေသာ ဦးဘို၏ မုန္႕တီ မစားရေတာ႕ၿခင္းေပတည္း။ ထို မုန္႕တီေရာင္းသည္႕ ဦးဘိုသည္လည္း မုန္႕တီေရာင္းၿခင္းကို စြန္႕လႊတ္ရပ္နားကာ ေလးေဘးေရာင္းရန္ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္တုိ႕ဆိုင္ခန္းႏွင္႕ မ်က္ေစာင္းထိုးခန္႕တြင္ ဆိုင္ခန္းတစ္ခန္း ၀ယ္ယူလိုက္ပါသည္။ ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းဆိုင္ခန္မ်ားသည္ အုတ္ပါးပါးေလးမ်ားႏွင္႕ တည္ေဆာက္ထားေသာ ႏွစ္ေပခြဲ၊ သံုးေပခန္႕ၿမင္႕သည္ အုတ္အဆင္႕မ်ားေပၚတြင္ အခန္းေလးမ်ား ကန္႕ထားသည္႕ အတန္းမ်ားၿဖစ္သည္။

မနက္တိုင္း ဆိုင္ခင္းခ်ိန္တြင္ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္အတြက္ အသစ္အဆန္းအရာ တစ္ခုမွာ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ဆိုင္ေရွ႕မွာ ၿဖတ္သန္းသြားေသာ အိမ္ရွင္မမ်ားၿဖစ္ပါသည္။ အိမ္ရွင္မ ပံုစံ အမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳး သည္ မနက္ခ်ိန္ခါ ဟင္ခ်က္စရာမ်ား ၀ယ္ခ်မ္းရန္ အလို႕ငွာ ေလေဘးတန္း ေစ်းအသစ္ကို ၿဖတ္ကာ ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသို႕ ေစ်း၀ယ္သြားၾကသည္။ အိမ္ရွင္မ်ား၏ ပံုစံသည္ သူတို႕ ၀ယ္ယူလာေသာ ခ်က္ၿပဳတ္စရာ ဟင္းအမယ္မ်ား၊ အထုတ္အၾကီးအေသးကို လိုက္၍ အကဲၿဖတ္ ခြဲၿခားလို႕ရပါသည္။ တစ္ခ်ိဳ႕သည္ ပါတိတ္ထမီ အေကာင္းစာမ်ား ၀တ္ဆင္ကာ ေရႊလက္ေကာက္မ်ား ဆင္ၿမန္းထားေသာ အဆီအစ္ေနသည္႕လက္ၿဖင္႕ ၾကက္သားထုတ္၊ ငါးၾကင္းထုတ္မ်ား ကို ဆြဲကိုင္၍ ေစ်းမွာ ၿပန္လာေလ႕ရွိၾကပါသည္။ ထိုကဲ႕သို႕ေသာ မိန္းမၾကီးမ်ားသည္ တစ္ခါတစ္ရံ ပိုက္ဆံအိတ္အၾကီးၾကီးမွလြဲ၍ ေစ်း၀ယ္ခဲ႕သည္ အထုတ္မ်ားကို ကိုယ္တိုင္မဆြဲပါ။ ပိန္ပိန္ပါးပါး ခပ္မြဲမြဲ ေကာင္မေလး တစ္ေယာက္က မိမိအိမ္ရွင္၏ အဆီမ်ားအစ္ေနေသာ တင္ပဆိုင္ၾကီးမ်ားကို ၾကည္႕ကာ အေနာက္မွ ခပ္ကုပ္ကုပ္အေလး လိုက္ၾကရသည္ကို ေတြ႕ရသည္။ တစ္ခ်ိဳ႕ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမ်ားသည္ မဲေၿခာက္ေသာ အသားအရည္ရွိကာ ခါးလံုရုံ အ၀တ္ကို ၀တ္လ်က္ ၀မ္းဗိုက္ပူပူ ကေလးငယ္ကို ဆြဲကာ ဆူးပုတ္ရြက္၊ ကစြန္းရြက္ကိုသာ ကိုင္လ်က္ ေစ်းၿပန္ၾကရသည္။ တစ္ခါတစ္ရံ ထို ၀မ္းဗိုက္ပူေလးကို တစ္ေယာက္တည္း ေစ်းလာ၀ယ္သည္ကို ေတြ႕ရတတ္သည္။ တစ္ခ်ိဳ႕ အသက္အလြန္တရာၾကီးရင္႕ေနသည္႕ အဘိုးအို၊ အဘြားအိုမ်ားပင္ တုန္ခ်ိ တုန္ခ်ိႏွင္႕ ေစ်း၀ယ္ထြက္ၾကရသည္ကို ေတြ႕ရသည္။ ထိုကဲ႕သို႕ေသာ မနက္ခ်ိန္ခါ ဆိုင္ခင္းခ်ိန္တြင္ ၿဖတ္သန္းသြားၾကေသာ အိမ္ရွင္မ ပံုစံမ်ိဳးစံုအား ေနစဥ္ၿမင္ေတြ႕ဖန္မ်ားလာေသာ အခါ ထိုသူမ်ား၏ အိမ္ စီပြားေရး အေၿခအေန၊ ထိုသူမ်ား၏ ေပ်ာ္ရႊင္မႈ ၀မ္းသာမႈ၊ မိသားစု၀င္မ်ား အေၾကာင္းကို သူတို႕၏ ေစ်းၿခင္းေတာင္းမ်ားက ဟစ္ေအာ္ေၾကြးေၾကာ္ေနသည္႕ကို စိတ္၀င္တစား ေလ႕လာမိသည္။

ထိုစဥ္က ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ ေစ်းေရာင္းရေသာ အလုပ္သည္ လူမ်ားကို အကဲခတ္ရၿခင္း၊ သင္႕တင္႕ေလ်ာက္ပတ္ေသာ လူမႈေရးနည္ပိရိယာယ္မ်ားၿဖင္႕ ခ်ဥ္းကပ္ရၿခင္းမ်ား ၿပဳလုပ္ရေသာ အလုပ္ၿဖစ္ပါသည္။ ဤသို႕ၿဖင္႕ ေစ်းအေရာင္းသည္၏ မ်က္လံုး တခ်က္အေ၀႕သည္ အၿခားလူတစ္ေယာက္ ၀တ္ဆင္ထားသည႕္ ဟန္ပန္ အမႈအရာ အ၀တ္အစားမ်ား ေခါင္းဖ်ားမွ ေၿခအဆံုး အားလံုးကို ဘာသာၿပန္ၿပီး ၿဖစ္သြားပါသည္။အစ္ကိုတန္သည္ကို အစ္ကိုေခၚ၊ အစ္မတန္သည္ကို အစ္မေခၚ၊ တစ္ခါတစ္ရံ ဦးဇင္း၊ ဆရာေလး၊ အဘ အစရွိသည္ၿဖင္႕ ေခၚရပါသည္။ တစ္ခ်ိဳ႕ေစ်း၀ယ္သူမ်ားသည္ မိမိၾကိဳက္ႏွစ္သက္ေသာ အထည္ကို ယတိၿပတ္ ဆံုးၿဖတ္ခ်က္ ခ်၍ မ၀ယ္တတ္ပါ။ တစ္ခ်ိဳ႕က ေစ်းမဆစ္တတ္ပါ။ တစ္ခ်ိဳ႕က ခ်ိဳးခ်ိဳးႏွိမ္ႏွိမ္ ေစ်းဆစ္ၾကပါသည္။ေစ်းေလာကမွ လူမ်ားသည္ မနက္ေစာေစာ ေစ်းဦးေပါက္တြင္ မိမိမေရာင္းႏိုင္ေသာ ေစ်းဆစ္ၿခင္းခံရပါက ထိုေန႕အတြက္ ကံမေကာင္းဟု ယူဆၾကသည္။ ထို႕ေၾကာင္႕ ေစ်းဦးေပါက္ တြင္ အတတ္ႏိုင္ဆံုး ေရာင္းႏိုင္ေအာင္ ၾကိဳးစားၾကရပါသည္။ ထိုကဲသို႕ ေစ်းဦေပါက္ေရာင္းရေသာ ေငြၿဖင္႕အၿခား အ၀တ္အထည္မ်ားကို တၿဖတ္ၿဖတ္ၿဖင္႕ လိုက္လံပုတ္ကာ ထိုအထည္မ်ား ေရာင္းရေစရန္ လာဘ္ေခၚေလ႕ရွိသည္။

ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္တို႕ ေလေဘးေလာကမွ လူငယ္ေယာကၤ်ားအမ်ားစုသည္ နာမည္ၾကီးေသာ တံဆိပ္(brand) မ်ားကို ၀တ္ဆင္ၿခင္းၿဖင္႕ အလြန္တရာဂုဏ္ယူေလ႕ရွိၾကသည္။နာမည္ၾကီးေသာ တံဆိပ္မ်ားၿဖင္႕ အကၤ်ီမ်ားကို ကြာလတီ(quality) သို႕မဟုတ္ ကြာတီ ၊ သို႕မဟုတ္ ကြာ ဟုေခၚဆိုၾကသည္။ ထိုကဲ႕သို႕ေသာ အ၀တ္အထည္မ်ားကို ၀တ္ဆင္သူကို ကြာလတီသမား၊ ကြာတီ သို႕မဟုတ္ ကြာသမားဟု ေခၚတြင္ၾကသည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ တကၠသိုလ္တက္ ၍ စာေမးပြဲၿပီးကာ မႏၱေလးၿပန္သည္႕ အေခါက္တြင္ တစ္ည မိခင္ၾကီးႏွင္႕ စကားစၿပီး ေၿပာဆိုေနစဥ္
"ငါ႕သား.. မင္း ေမာင္စိုး ကို သိလား" ဟု မိခင္ၾကီးက ေမးပါသည္။
"ဘယ္ ေမာင္စိုး လဲ အေမ"
"မုန္႕တီေရာင္းတဲ႕ ဦးဘို သားေလး"
"ေၾသာ္....သိၿပီ ဟို ရြာသား ဆန္ဆန္ တစ္ေယာက္မလား"
"ေအး..မင္း...သူေတာင္ ကြာလတီ ၿဖစ္သြားၿပီ"
ထိုစဥ္က ကြ်ႏု္ပ္က "ဟုတ္လား" ဟုသာ သာမန္ ေကာက္ခ်က္ ခ်ခဲဲ႕ပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ မိခင္ၾကီးသည္ အတန္းပညာ သံုးတန္းမွ်သာ ေအာင္ၿမင္ခဲ႕ပါသည္။ သို႕ရာတြင္ သူသည္ ထီးတံဆိပ္ေလးမ်ား၊ YSL တံဆိပ္ကေလးမ်ား၊ Liberty Bell တံဆိပ္ကေလးမ်ား အစရွိသၿဖင္႕ နာမည္ၾကီးေသာ တံဆိပ္မ်ား ကို ခြဲၿခား သိကာ ေစ်းေကာင္းရေအာင္ ေရာင္းတတ္ပါသည္။ ေလးေဘးထုပ္ တစ္ထုပ္ေဖာက္လွ်င္ ေစ်းသည္ၿခင္း ကြာဘယ္ႏွစ္ထည္ ပါသလဲ၊ ေဂါင္ထည္ ဘယ္ႏွစ္ထည္ ပါသလဲဟု ေယဘူယ ေမးၾကေလ႕ရွိၾကသည္။ ထိုအရာမ်ားက ေစ်းေကာင္းရေသာ အရာမ်ားေပကိုး။ တၿဖည္းၿဖည္းႏွင္႕ တရုတ္ၿပည္ဘက္မွာ အကၤ် ီမ်ား တစ္ဆိပ္အတုမ်ားႏွင္႕ ၀င္လာေသာ အခါ တစ္ခ်ိဳ႕ ဆိုင္မ်ားသည္ တကယ္႕ မူရင္း တံဆိပ္ႏွင္႕ တူေအာင္ ေရာေႏွာကာ ေရာင္းေလ႕ရွိသည္။ ၄င္းကို အင္ထု သည္ဟု ေခၚသည္။ အင္ သည္ Made in Myanmar အသံုးအႏႈန္း အယူအဆမွ လာကာ အတိုအားၿဖင္႕ အင္ ဟု ေခၚလိုက္ၾကသည္။ ထုသည္မွာ ေစ်း၀ယ္အား ပစၥည္းအတု ေရာင္းခ်ၿခင္းအားၿဖင္႕ ထုႏွက္လိုက္သည္၊ ထုေထာင္းလိုက္သည္ ကို ရည္ညႊန္းပါသည္။ တစ္စံုတစ္ေယာက္က ပစၥည္းအတု ၀ယ္မိလွ်င္ ထိုသူအား မင္းေတာ႕ အင္မိသြားၿပီ၊ ဒီပစၥည္းက အင္ၾကီး အစရွိသၿဖင္႕ ရႈတ္ခ်ေလ႕ရွိသည္။

ေလေဘးထည္မ်ားသည္ ခိုင္ခန္႕သည္၊ ဒီဆိုင္းမ်ား ဆန္းသည္၊ ေစ်းေပါသည္။ ထို႕ေၾကာင္႕ အမ်ားအားၿဖင္႕ လူငယ္မ်ား၊ အေၿခခံလူတန္းစားမ်ား ၀ယ္ယူေလ႕ရွိၾကသည္။ ထိုစဥ္က ကြ်ႏု္ပ္ႏွင္႕ ေပါင္းသင္း ေနေသာ သူငယ္ခ်င္းမ်ား ရွိပါသည္။ သူတို႕သည္ တခါတရံတြင္ ေဆး၀ါး သံုးစြဲေလ႕ရွိၾကပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ မိခင္ၾကီး သည္ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္အား အၿမဲအစဥ္ ေစာင္႕ၾကည္႕ေနကာ ေဆး၀ါး မသံုးစြဲမိေစရန္ ၾကတ္မတ္ေနေလ႕ ရွိသည္။ ထိုစဥ္က ကြ်ႏု္ပ္ ေနရသည္မွာ မလြတ္လပ္ဟု ခံစားရပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ တကၠသိုလ္တက္ ၍ အေဆာင္ေနသည္အထိ မႏၱေလးမွ ေဆးသံုးစြဲသည္႕ သူငယ္ခ်င္း တစ္ေယာက္ ပါလာ ေသးသည္။ ထိုစဥ္က ေဆးသံုးစြဲသည္႕ လူငယ္မ်ား အၾကားတြင္ ေလေဘးတန္းကို ဘြန္ ဟုေခၚပါသည္။ ဘာေၾကာင္႕ ေခၚသည္ ကို မသိေတာ႕ပါ။ ေဆးေၿခာက္ရႈသည္ကို စကားလိမ္သံုး ၍ ကုတ္မိုကို ကုတ္ၿဖိဳ သည္ဟု ေၿပာၾကသည္။ ေဆးေၿခာက္ကုိ မုန္႕ဟု ေခၚသည္။ ၄င္းကို ေဆးလိပ္အထဲတြင္႕ ထည္႕၍ သံုးစြဲၿခင္းကို မုန္႕ၿဖဳတ္ သည္ေပါ႕။ သို႕မဟုတ္ မုန္႕စားသည္ဟုလည္းေၿပာသည္။ မုန္႕ကို ၿဖဳတ္ သည္ဟု စကားလိမ္ "ကို" ကို သံုး၍ေၿပာလိုလွ်င္ ကုတ္မို ကို ကုတ္ၿဖိဳ သည္ဟု ေၿပာရသည္။ စကားလိမ္မ်ား အမ်ား အၿပား ရွိပါသည္။ မိမိတို႕ က်င္လည္ရာ၊ ပတ္၀န္က်င္အေပၚ မူတည္၍ ကြဲၿပားၾကသည္။ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္ မႏၱေလး ဖိနပ္မ်ား ေရာင္းစဥ္က "စန္" စကား ေၿပာပါသည္။ မိန္းမလ်ာ အေၿခာက္မ်ား ေၿပာေသာ စကားသည္ "တေကာ္" စကားၿဖစ္သည္။ အေၿခာ္တစ္ေကာက္ ဆိုသည္မွာ အေၿခာက္ကို ေခၚၿခင္းၿဖစ္သည္။ ထိုစဥ္က မိခင္ၾကီးႏွင္႕ ဖခင္ၾကီးတို႕၏ ၿပတ္သားေသာ အုတ္ခ်ဳပ္မႈေအာက္တြင္ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္ ေဆး၀ါသံုးစြဲၿခင္းသို႕ မေရာက္ခဲ႕ပါေခ်။ ထိုသူငယ္ခ်င္းမ်ားၿဖင္႕လည္း ဇတ္လမ္းမ်ား ၿပတ္သြားခဲ႕ၾကရသည္။

ေလေဘးအထည္မ်ားသည္ ေဆာင္းတြင္း တြင္ အလြန္တရာေရာင္းေကာင္းကာ၊ အၿမတ္မ်ားမ်ားက်န္ေသာ ကာလၿဖစ္ပါသည္။ အၿမတ္မ်ားမ်ားဆိုသည္ မွာ စီပြားေရးလုပ္ငန္းရွင္ၾကီးကဲ႕သို႕ေသာ အၿမတ္မ်ားမ်ားကို ဆိုလိုၿခင္းမဟုတ္ပါ။ မိမိရင္းထားသည္ထက္ အေတာ္အတန္း ပိုလ်ံေသာ အၿမတ္အစြန္းကို ေခၚဆိုပါသည္။ ထိုသို႕ ေဆာင္းတြင္းကာလမွ လြန္ေၿမာက္လွ်င္ ေႏြရာသီႏွင္႕ မိုးရာသီသည္ အလြန္အေရာင္းပါးေသာ ကာလမ်ားၿဖစ္ပါသည္။ တစ္ခါတရံ တစ္ထည္မွ် မေရာင္းရေသာ ေန႕ရက္မ်ားလည္း ရွိပါသည္။ ထို႕ေၾကာင္႕ ေဆာင္းတြင္း ကာလမ်ားတြင္ ေလေဘးသည္မ်ားသည္ အလုပ္ကို ၾကီဳးစားလုပ္ကာ ေငြေၾကးမ်ားကို စုေဆာင္းၾကရသည္။ ေဆာင္းတြင္း တြင္ ဂ်ာကင္ထုတ္၊ ကုတ္အကၤ်ီထုတ္၊ သိုးေမႊးထုတ္ အစရွိသည္ ေဆာင္ထည္ မ်ားကို ေဖာက္ၾကသည္။ သၾကၤန္ရက္မ်ား နီးလွ်င္ ဂ်င္းေဘာင္းဘီထုတ္ကို ေဖာက္ၾကရသည္။ ေႏြရာသီ ရက္မ်ားတြင္ ရွပ္အကၤ်ီထုတ္ကို ေဖာက္ၾကသည္။

တစ္ႏွစ္ေသာ ေဆာင္းတြင္းတြင္ မိခင္ၾကီးသည္ ေမၿမိဳ႕ ညမ္ေတာပြဲသို႕ သြားကာ က်န္ရွိေနေသးေသာ ေဆာင္ထည္မ်ားကို အကုန္ေရာင္းရန္ အတြက္ ၿပင္ဆင္ပါေတာ႕သည္။ မိခင္ၾကီးသည္ ႏွားစီေလ႕ရွိသည္႕ အတြက္ ေတာ္တန္ ပင္ပန္းသည္႕ ခရီးမ်ားကို ထြက္ခဲေလ႕ရွိသည္။ သို႕ရာတြင္ ထိုႏွစ္ေဆာင္တြင္း၌ ေလေဘးတန္းမွ လူအမ်ားအၿပား ေမၿမိဳ႕သို႕ သြားေရာက္မည္႕ အတြက္ မိခင္ၾကီးလည္း လိုအပ္ေသာ အခန္းကို မွာယူကာ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္အား အေဖၚအၿဖစ္ ေခၚ၍ သားအမိႏွစ္ေယာက္ ေမၿမိဳ႕ ညမ္ေတာေစ်းပြဲေတာ္သို႕ ေစ်းေရာင္းထြက္ခဲ႕ၾကပါသည္။ ထိုပြဲသည္ တစ္ႏွစ္တစ္ခါ က်င္းပေလ႕ရွိကာ ရွမ္းေတာင္တန္းမ်ားမွ ေတာင္သူ မ်ား၊ လယ္ယာလုပ္သူမ်ားသည္ ေမၿမိဳ႕သို႕ဆင္းလာကာ တစ္ႏွစ္တာ စုေဆာင္းထားသည္႕ေငြေၾကးမ်ားၿဖင္႕ လိုအပ္သည္မ်ားကို ၀ယ္ၿခမ္းၾကရသည္။ ေမၿမိဳ႕ေဆာင္းသည္ အလြန္ေအးပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္တို႕ သားအမိသည္ ေၿမၾကီးေပၚတြင္ ပလပ္စတစ္ မိုးကာစမ်ား ခင္က်င္းကာ ထိုအေပၚတြင္ အ၀တ္မ်ား ပံုလ်က္ အိပ္စက္ၾကရပါသည္။ ထိုညမ္ေတာပြဲ ေရာက္စ ႏွစ္ရက္ခန္႕အထိ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္ ၀မ္းခ်ဳပ္ပါေတာ႕သည္။ အေၾကာင္းအရင္းမွာ ပြဲေစ်းတြင္ ေစ်းေရာင္းသူမ်ားသည္ ေရးခ်ိဳးၿခင္း၊ ေနာက္ေဖးသြားၿခင္းမ်ားကို ပြဲေစ်း၏ ေဘးတြင္ရွိေသာ ဘုန္းၾကီးေက်ာင္းကို အားကိုးရပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္ေရာက္သည္႕ေန႕က ေနာက္ေဖးသြားရန္ ေနရာကို ေမးၿမန္း၍ ဘုန္းၾကီးေက်ာင္း၀င္းသို႕ ေရာက္သြားပါသည္။ အလြန္တရာ က်ယ္ၿပန္႕ေသာ ဘုန္းၾကီးေက်ာင္းပါ။ ေနာက္ေဖးသြားရန္ အိမ္သားမ်ားသည္ အမ်ိဳးသားမ်ားႏွင္႕ အမ်ိဳးသမီး ဘက္ဟူ၍ ရွိပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္ အမ်ိဳးသားမ်ားဘက္သို႕ ေနာက္ေဖးသြားရန္ အတြက္ ၀င္သြားသည္႕အခါ အိမ္သာမ်ား တန္းစီလ်က္ ဆယ္လံုးေက်ာ္ခန္႕ အုတ္မ်ားႏွင္႕ အခိုင္အမာ ေဆာက္ထားသည္ကိုေတြ႕ရသည္။ သို႕ရာတြင္ တံခါးမရွိပါ။ ေယာကၤ်ား အားလံုး အၿပင္ဘက္ကို ေက်ာေပး၍ အတိုင္းသား တန္းစီထိုင္ကာ မိမိတို႕ ကိစၥ ၀ိစၥမ်ားကို ေၿဖရွင္းေနသည္ကို ေတြ႕ရသည္။ကြ်ႏု္ပ္ သည္ ထိုေနရာတြင္ ပ်ိဳ႕အန္႕ကာ ၿပန္လွည္႕လာခဲ႕သည္။ ႏွစ္ရက္ခန္႕မွ် ၀မ္းခ်ဳပ္ခံကာ ေနာက္ဆံုး ခြန္အားအၿပည္႕သြင္း၍ ကိစၥမ်ားကို ေၿဖရွင္းရပါသည္။ ထိုစဥ္အခါက ရွမ္ၿပည္မွ အထက္သို႕ ဆက္တက္သြားလွ်င္ အခ်ိဳ႕ နယ္မ်ားတြင္ အိမ္သာသည္ အကာအကြယ္ေတာင္ မပါဟူ သိရပါသည္။ သတင္းစာ ခပ္ၾကီးၾကီးတစ္ေစာင္ႏွင္႕ မိမိမ်က္ႏွာကို ကာကြယ္ကာ က်န္သည္႕ အပိုင္းကို ေလသလပ္ခံ ကိစၥမ်ားကို ေၿဖရွင္းရပါသည္။ ထိုစဥ္က ေမၿမိဳ႕ ညမ္ေတာ္ပြဲ ေလေဘးေရာင္းခဲ႕စဥ္က ၾကံဳခဲ႕ရေသာ အေတြ႕အၾကံဳပါ။

ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသစ္တြင္ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္ ေၾကြပစ္ၿခင္းကို စြဲသြားခဲ႕ေသးသည္။ ဆိုင္ခင္းက်င္းၿပီးသည္ႏွင္႕ မိခင္ၾကီးႏွင္႕ ဖခင္ၾကီး ေစ်းေရာက္လာ လွ်င္ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္ေၾကြပစ္ရန္ အေဖၚလိုက္ရွာ ကာ ေန႕ခင္းအထိ ေၾကြထိုင္ပစ္ပါေတာ႕သည္။ ေလေဘးတန္းသည္ အလြန္တရာ စည္းကားေနေလ႕ရွိၿပီး ေၾကြ၀ိုင္း၊ က်ား၀ိုင္း၊ စစ္တုရင္၀ိုင္း၊ ေစ်း၀ယ္မ်ား ကို ေခၚသံ၊ ေစ်းေရာင္းသံမ်ားၿဖင္႕ ဆူညံေနေလ႕ရွိသည္။ တစ္ခါတစ္ရံတြင္ ေဟာဒီမွာ ကြာတီအကၤ်ီေတြ အလကားေပးေနတယ္ ဟု ေအာ္သံမ်ား ၾကားရတတ္သည္။ တကယ္ အလကား ေပးၿခင္းမဟုတ္ပါ။ ေစ်း၀ယ္မ်ားအား ညာ၍ေခၚၿခင္းၿဖစ္ပါသည္။ ေၾကြတြင္ တစ္ဆယ္၊ တစ္ပါ၊ သံုးလံုး၊ ေလးလံုး၊ အစိတ္၊ တစ္ေၿခာက္ဆိုၿပီ ရွိကာ မိမိတို႕ အလိုရွိေသာ အပြင္႕ကို မာန္ၿပင္၍ ပစ္ရပါသည္။ ထို႕ေၾကာင္႕ တစ္ဆယ္ကြာ၊ တစ္ဘို တို႕တယ္ အစရွိသည္ ႕ အသံမ်ားလည္း ၾကားရပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္ ထိုကဲ႕သို လတ္လ်ားလတ္လ်ားေနသည္ ကို မိခင္ၾကီးႏွင္႕ ဖခင္ၾကီးက မၾကည္႕ရႈ႕ေနႏိုင္သည္႕ အဆံုးတြင္ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္အား ေစ်းခ်ဳိ တိုက္တန္း ရႈမ၀ဖိနပ္ဆိုင္သို႕ မႏၱေလး ဖိနပ္မ်ား ေရာင္းရန္း အလို႕ငွာ အလုပ္သမား အၿဖစ္ ပို႕လိုက္ပါေတာ႕သည္။

အနႏၱေမတၱာၿဖင္႕
ဘေကာင္း

ဆက္ႏြယ္ေနေသာ အၿခား အေၾကာင္းအရာ
  • [ အိမ္ေတာ္ရာဘုရားမွ ေလေဘး ေလာက ]
  • အိမ္ေတာ္ရာဘုရားမွ ေလေဘး ေလာက


    ေလေဘးဆိုသည္႕ အရာမွာ စာေရးသူ ငယ္စဥ္ ကေလးဘ၀ ကတည္းွက အတူတကြၾကီးၿပင္းလာေသာ အရာတစ္ခုၿဖစ္ပါတယ္။ၿမန္မာၿပည္တြင္ ေလေဘးထည္ဆိုသည္႕ အထည္မ်ားမွာ ႏိုင္ငံၿခားၿဖစ္ အ၀တ္အထည္ အေဟာင္းမ်ားကို ေခၚဆိုတာၿဖစ္ပါသည္။ ေလေဘးအ၀တ္အထည္မ်ားသည္ သံနန္းၾကိဳးၿဖင္႕ ပတ္ထားေသာ ေပါင္၅၀၀ ခန္႕ေလးသည္႕ အထုပ္ၾကီးမ်ားၿဖင္႕ဘဂၤဘားေဒ႕ မွတဆင္႕ ၿမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ စစ္ေတြၿမိဳ႕သို႕ စက္ေလွၿဖင္႕ေရာက္ရွိပါသည္။ ထုိလမ္းေၾကာင္းသည္ စာေရးသူ ကေလးဘ၀မွ သိထားခဲ႕ေသာ လမ္းေၾကာင္းၿဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ယေန႕ေခတ္တြင္ ပံုစံမ်ိဳးစံု လမ္းေၾကာင္းမ်ိဳးစံုၿဖင္႕ ၀င္ေရာက္ႏိုင္ပါသည္။ ေၿပာၿပခ်င္သည္က မႏၱေလးတြင္ ရွိေသာ ေလေဘးေလာကမွ ဘ၀မ်ား၊ အေရာင္းအ၀ယ္ေလာကသားမ်ား၊ ေၿပာဟန္ ဆိုဟန္မ်ား ႏွင္႕ ထိုေလာကမွ ဘေကာင္း ဘယ္လိုၾကီးၿပင္းလာသလဲ ဆိုတဲ႕ အေၾကာင္းပါ။

    စာေရးသူ ဘေကာင္း သိတတ္သည္႕ အရြယ္ ၈-ႏွစ္ ၉-ႏွစ္ ခန္႕တြင္ မိဘမ်ားသည္ ေလေဘးလုပ္ငန္းမ်ားကို လုပ္ကိုင္လ်က္ ရွိေနပါသည္။ ေလေဘးလုပ္ငန္း လုပ္ကိုင္သည္ဟု ဆိုရာတြင္ ႏွစ္မ်ိဳး ႏွစ္စားရွိပါတယ္။ ပထမတစ္မ်ိဳးသည္ ေလေဘးထုပ္ ကုန္သည္မ်ားပါ။ ထိုကုန္သည္မ်ားသည္ အမ်ားအားၿဖင္႕ ရခိုင္လူမ်ိဳးမ်ား ၿဖစ္ကာ စစ္ေတြ ၊ ေတာင္ကုတ္ လမ္းေၾကာင္းေတြမွတဆင္႕ ေလေဘးထုပ္မ်ားကို ရန္ကုန္၊ မႏၱေလး ၿမိဳ႕ၾကီးမ်ားသို႕ သယ္ေဆာင္ ပို႕ယူ ကုန္ကူးၾကေလ႕ရွၾိကပါသည္။ ထိုသူမ်ားသည္ ကုန္သည္ၾကီးမ်ား ၿဖစ္ကာ ေငြေၾကး အရင္းအႏွီး အေၿမာက္အၿမားၿဖင္႕ ေလေဘးအထုပ္ အေၿမာက္အၿမားကို ကုန္ကူးၾကပါသည္။ ၄င္းတို႕သည္ ေလေဘးေလာက၏ ေလးေဘးထုပ္ လက္ကားသည္မ်ား ၿဖစ္ၾကသည္။ ဒုတိယ အမ်ိဳးအစားမွာ ထုိသူမ်ားထံမွ ေလေဘး အထုပ္တစ္ထုပ္ၿခင္း ၀ယ္ယူကာ တစ္ထည္ၿခင္း လက္လီေရာင္းခ်ၿခင္း ေသာ္၄င္း၊ နယ္မ်ားသို႕ လက္ကား ၿပန္လည္ ေရာင္းခ်ၿခင္းမ်ားေသာ္၄င္း ၿပဳလုပ္ၾကရပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္၏ မိဘမ်ားသည္ ဒုတိယ အမ်ိဳးအစား ေလေဘးသည္မ်ားၿဖစ္ၾကသည္။

    ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္၏ ဘ၀တေလ်ွာက္လံုးတြင္ ေမြးဖြားလာသည္မွ အစ တကၠသိုလ္ေက်ာင္းသားဘ၀၊ ထိုမွတဆင္႕ ႏိုင္ငံရပ္ၿခားေဒသမ်ားသို႕ သြားေရာက္ အလုပ္မ်ားလုပ္ကိုင္သည္ အထိ ေလေဘးထည္မ်ားကိုသာ ၀တ္ဆင္ခဲ႕သည္။ စာေရးသူ ငယ္စဥ္အခါက မႏၱေလးမွ ေလေဘးေရာင္းသည္႕ ဆိုင္ခန္းမ်ားသည္ အိမ္ေတာ္ရာဘုရား ေက်ာင္း၀င္းအထဲတြင္ ရွိခဲ႕ပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္တို႕ ေလေဘးေလာကမွ လူမ်ားက ထိုေလးေဘး ဆိုင္ခန္းအတန္းမ်ားကို ေလေဘးတန္းဟု ေခၚဆိုၾကသည္။ ဗုဒၶဘာသာ ဘုရားေက်ာင္း၀င္ အတြင္းတြင္ ၿဖစ္ေသာ ေၾကာင္႕ ေလေဘးတန္းမ်ားသို႕ သြားလိုလ်င္ ဖိနပ္ခြ်တ္ၿပီး သြားၾကရသည္။ေလေဘးတန္းသို႕ ေစ်းလာ၀ယ္သူမ်ားကလည္း မိမိတို႕ စီးလာေသာ ဖိနပ္မ်ား၊ ေၿခနင္းမ်ားကို လက္တြင္ ကိုယ္စီကိုင္၍ ေလေဘးတန္း ေစ်း အတြင္းတြင္ လွည္႕လည္ကာ မိမိတို႕ ၾကိဳက္ႏွစ္သက္ရာ အ၀တ္အထည္မ်ားကို ၀ယ္ယူရပါသည္။ ဘုရားေက်ာင္း၀င္းအတြင္းတြင္ ဖိနပ္မစီးရေသာေၾကာင္႕ ေလေဘးေရာင္းသူမ်ားသည္ ေၿမၾကီးမွ အေအးဓာတ္ေၾကာင္႕ ရံဖန္ရံခါ နားစီးေရာဂါမ်ား ၿဖစ္တတ္ၾကေလ႕ရွိသည္။ ထုိေလေဘးဆိုင္ခန္းမ်ားသည္ လြန္ခဲ႕ေသာ ၁၉-ႏွစ္ခန္႕ ေလာက္မွစ၍ ဘုရားေက်ာင္း၀င္းမွ ေၿမာက္ၿပင္ ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသို႕ ေရႊ႕ေၿပာင္းသြားခဲ႕ရၿပီးၿပီ ၿဖစ္ေသာ္လည္း စာေရးသူ၏ မိခင္သည္ ယေန႕ အခ်ိန္အထိ နားစီးေရာဂါ ရံဖန္ရံခါ ၿဖစ္ေလ႕ရွိပါသည္။

    ထိုအိမ္ေတာ္ရာ ဘုရားေက်ာင္း၀င္းအတြင္း ေလေဘးေရာင္းစဥ္ အခ်ိန္ကာလမ်ားသည္ ယေန႕ ေခတ္ ေလေဘးေလာကမွ ေရာင္း၀ယ္မႈမ်ားႏွင္႕ ၿခားနားပါသည္။ စားေရးသူသည္ ငယ္စဥ္ မူလတန္းေက်ာင္းသားဘ၀ စြန္လိုက္တတ္သည္႕ အရြယ္ေလာက္တြင္ မိဘမ်ားႏွင္႕ ေက်ာင္းပိတ္ရက္မ်ား တြင္ ေစ်းလုိက္ကာ အကၤ်ီမ်ားကို ခင္းက်င္းၿခင္း၊ ထုတ္ပိုးၿခင္း၊ သူငယ္ခ်င္းမ်ားႏွင္႕ ေလးေဘးထုပ္ ေဖါက္သည္႕ ဆိုင္ခန္းမ်ားသို႕ လွည္႕လည္ကာ အိပ္ေထာင္ႏိႈက္ၿခင္းမ်ား ၿဖင္႕ ကေလးဘ၀ကို ၿဖတ္သန္းခဲ႕ဖူးပါသည္။ အိပ္ေထာင္ႏိႈက္သည္ကို အနည္းငယ္ ရွင္းလင္းေၿပာၿပပါမည္။ ဟိုတုန္းက ေလေဘးထုပ္မ်ား၏ အကၤ်ီအထည္ အိပ္ေထာင္မ်ားတြင္ ရာဘာၿဖင္႕ၿပဳလုပ္ထားေသာ ႏိုင္ငံၿခားၿဖစ္ ကားအရုပ္ကေလးမ်ား၊ သံစက္ရုပ္ အရုပ္ကေလးမ်ား ပါလာေလ႕ရွိပါသည္။ ယေန႕ေခတ္တြင္ေတာ႕ ထိုကဲ႕သို႕ေသာအရုပ္ကေလးမ်ားကို စတိုးဆိုင္တိုင္းလုိလိုတြင္ ကေလးတိုင္း အလြယ္တကူ ၀ယ္ႏိုင္ၾကပါသည္။ ဆိုင္ခန္းတစ္ခန္းမွ ေလေဘးပါကင္ထုပ္ကို ေဖါက္ၿပီဆိုလွ်င္ ကေလးမ်ားက အိပ္ေထာင္ ႏႈိက္ၾကပါသည္။ ရသည္ အရုပ္ကေလးမ်ားကို လည္း ယူခြင္႕ေပးထားပါသည္။ ထုိစဥ္က ေလေဘးအကၤ်ီပံုၾကီးမ်ားသည္ ကေလးမ်ားအတြက္ ဖိုးက်ိဳင္းတုတ္ ပါပဲ။ ရံဖန္ရံခါတြင္ ပါလာတတ္ေသာ ႏိုင္ငံၿခားေငြ စကၠဴ တစ္ရြက္စ၊ ႏွစ္ရြက္စကိုေတာ႕ ပိုင္ရွင္က ယူပါသည္။ ထိုစဥ္အခါက ႏိုင္ငံၿခားၿဖစ္ ရာဘာ အရုပ္ေသးေသးေလးမ်ား ရလ်င္ အလြန္ေပ်ာ္ၾကပါသည္။

    ဘုရားေက်ာင္း၀င္းအတြင္းတြင္ ၿဖစ္ေသာေၾကာင္႕ ေၿမၾကီး၏ အစိုဓာတ္ မွ ေၿခဖ၀ါး အေအးသက္သာေစရန္ ေလေဘးဆိုင္ခန္းမ်ား၏ အေရွ႕ေၿမၾကီးေပၚတြင္ ၀ါးကပ္(၀ါးၾကပ္)မ်ား ခင္းက်င္းထားၾကပါသည္။ မွတ္မွတ္ရရ ထိုစဥ္က ေလးေဘးေရာင္းသူမ်ားသည္ ၀ါး ကို ေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ား အသံုးၿပဳၾကေလ႕ရွိသည္။ အကၤ်ီခ်ိတ္ရန္ တန္းကို ၀ါးၿဖင္႕ တန္းရသည္။ အကၤ်ီကို နန္းၾကိဳးၿဖင္႕ ၿပဳလုပ္ထားေသာ ခ်ိတ္မ်ားၿဖင္႕ ခ်ိတ္ၾကရသည္။ အကၤ်ီတန္းမ်ားကို ၀ါးလံုမ်ားၿဖင္႕ အနည္းဆံုး သံုးတန္း၊ ေလးတန္း ဆိုင္၏ ေဘးပတ္လည္တြင္ တန္းကာ အကၤ်ီမ်ားကို စည္းစနစ္က်နစြာ တန္းစီခ်ိတ္ၾကရသည္။ စာေရးသူ၏ ဖခင္ၾကီးသည္ ဆိုင္ဖြင္႕ခ်ိန္၊ ဆိုင္သိမ္းခ်ိန္မ်ား တြင္ အကၤ်ီမ်ားကို တစ္ထည္ၿခင္း ခင္းက်င္းပံု၊ ၿဖဳတ္သိမ္းပံု၊ အကၤ်ီမ်ား မေၾကေစရန္ တစ္ထည္ႏွင္႕ တစ္ထည္ စနစ္တစ္က် စီရီ သိမ္းဆည္းပံုမ်ားကို သင္ၾကားေပးပါသည္။ ေစ်း၀ယ္သူႏွင္႕ စကားေၿပာဆို ဆက္ဆံၿခင္း၊ မိမိ အလိုရွိေသာ အကၤ်ီတန္ဖိုးကို ရရွိရန္ ေစ်း၀ယ္သူအား တၿဖည္းၿဖည္းခ်င္း သိမ္းသြင္ယူပံုမ်ားကိုေတာ႕ အတုၿမင္ အတတ္သင္ဆိုသလို တၿဖည္ၿဖည္းႏွင္႕ ေၿပာဆိုဆက္ဆံသြားတတ္ပါသည္။

    စာေရးသူ ရွစ္တန္း စာေမးပြဲ ၿပီးသည္႕ အခ်ိန္တြင္ မိခင္ၾကီးသည္ နာမက်န္းၿဖစ္ကာ ေဆးရုံတက္ရပါသည္။ ထိုအခ်ိန္မွစ၍ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္၏ဖခင္သည္ စိးပြားေရး လုပ္ငန္းတစ္ခုလံုးကို ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္အား လံုး၀ လက္လႊဲထားကာ မိခင္ၾကီး ၿပန္လည္ က်န္းမာေစရန္ အစြမ္းကုန္ ၾကိဳးစာခဲ႕ရပါသည္။ ထိုအခ်ိန္အခါမ်ားသည္ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္အတြက္ အလြန္တရာမွ ၀မ္းနည္းစရာေကာင္းေသာ အၿဖစ္အပ်က္ေန႕စြဲမ်ားၿဖစ္ခဲ႕ပါသည္။ တေန႕ ဖခင္ၾကီးသည္ အိမ္ၿပန္လာကာ ငိုပါသည္။ မင္႕ အေမ ဒီေတာင္က မေက်ာ္ႏိုင္ေတာ႕ ဘူးဟု ေၿပာသည္။ ထိုစဥ္က ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ ဖခင္ၾကီးအား အားမေပးတတ္ပါ။ သို႕ရာတြင္ ဖခင္ၾကီးႏွင္႕ တူညီေသာ ခံစားခ်က္က ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ရင္ထဲတြင္ ၿပည္႕လ်ံေနခဲ႕ပါသည္။ ေနာက္ရက္မ်ားတြင္ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ ေစ်းကို ပိုမို အားသြန္းခြန္စိုက္ ေရာင္းကာ အိမ္စရိတ္ကို ၿဖည္႕ဆည္းရပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္၏ ႏွမေလးက အိမ္တြင္ေနရကာ အဘြားအား ၿပဳစုရသည္။

    ထိုစဥ္က ရွပ္အကၤ်ီတစ္ထည္ကို ၁၅-က်ပ္မွ ၂၅-က်ပ္အထိ ေရာင္းပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ မုန္႕တီၾကိဳက္သြားသည္မွာ ထိုစဥ္က ၿဖစ္သည္။ အေဖသည္ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ အား မနက္တိုင္း မုန္႕တီတစ္ပြဲ စားခြင္႕ ၿပဳသည္။ ထုိစဥ္က တစ္ပြဲ ၅-က်ပ္ပါ။ အိမ္ေတာ္ရာ ဘုရားထဲတြင္ ဦးဘို၏ မုန္႕တီသည္ အလြန္နာမည္ ၾကီးပါသည္။ မနက္စာ မုန္႕တီကို ၿမိန္ေရရွက္ေရ စားသံုးကာ ဆိုင္ခင္းၿခင္းလုပ္ငန္းကို စတင္ေလ႕ရွိသည္။ ရံဖန္ရံခါ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ မုန္႕တီစားေနခိုက္ အေ၀းမွ ေဖါက္သည္မ်ား လာလွ်င္ အလြန္ စိတ္မရွည္တတ္ပါ။ ေဘးမွာရွိေနေသာ မုန္႕တီပုကန္ႏွင္႕ ဟင္းခ်ိဳရည္ခြက္သည္ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ အား ေလွာင္ေၿပာင္ေန သကဲ႕သိုပင္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ ဆိုင္ခန္းမွ ႏွစ္ခန္းေက်ာ္ ဆိုင္တြင္ လည္း ေကာင္ေလးတစ္ေယာက္ မနက္တိုင္း အၿမဲ ဆိုင္ခင္းေလ႕ ရွိပါသည္။ ထိုေကာင္းေလးသည္ ၀င္းဦးအသံကို တု၍ စကားေၿပာၿခင္းကို အလြန္ပိုင္ပါသည္္။ ယေန႕တြင္ ထိုေကာင္ေလးမရွိေတာ႕ပါ။ သူသည္ လူ႕ ေလာကမွ ေစာစီးစြာ ထြက္သြားခဲ႕ပါသည္။

    ေလေဘးႏွင္႕ ရခိုင္လူမ်ိဳးမ်ား ဆက္ႏြယ္ေနသကဲ႕သို ေလေဘးတန္းတြင္ ရခိုင္လူမ်ိဳး အသိမိတ္ေဆြ၊ ကုန္သည္မ်ား၊ သူရို႕၏ စကားသံမ်ားကို ၾကားရေလ႕ရွိသည္။ စိုက္ေတြ(စစ္ေတြ)၊ အေဘာင္၊ သူ႕တို႕၏ ဟန္ပန္မ်ားကို ထိုစဥ္ကတည္းက ရင္းႏွီးခဲ႕ပါသည္။ က်ား၀ိုင္း၊ ေၾကြ၀ိုင္း၊ ေပးသီ၀ိုင္း တိုင္းတြင္ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ က တေမာ႕ေမာ႕ႏွင္႕ ရွိေနတတ္သည္။ ၀င္းဦးအသံကို တု၍ ေၿပာတတ္ေသာ ေကာင္ေလးႏွင္႕ က်ားထိုးၾကလွ်င္ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ အၿမဲရႈံးပါသည္။ ထိုစဥ္က တစ္ခုခု ရံႈးလွ်င္ ေၾကာင္ၾကာၾကာ ေရမငုတ္ႏိုင္ပါဘူး ဟူ ၾကံဳး၀ါၾကေလ႕ရွိကာ ပြဲသစ္ၿပန္စၾကသည္။ မည္သူက စေၿပာလိုက္သည္ မသိပါ။

    အိမ္ေတာ္ရာ ေလးေဘးတန္းကို အမွီၿပဳလ်က္ လုပ္စားၾကေသာ ကုလား ဒိုဘီတန္းလည္း ဘုရားေက်ာင္း၀င္း အထဲတြင္ ရွိပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ မိဘမ်ား ပင္တိုင္သံုးေသာ ကုလားဒိုဘီမွာ ဦးလွေမာင္ ဒိုဘီၿဖစ္သည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ မိခင္ၾကီးက ေလ်ာ္ဖြတ္ မီးေၾကြတိုက္ၿပီးသည္႕ အထည္မ်ားကို ဒိုဘီတန္းမွ သြားေရာက္ ယူခိုင္းသည္႕ အခါ ရံဖတ္ရံခါ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ သည္ ထိုကုလားဒိုဘီတန္းတြင္ အခ်ိန္ၿဖဳန္းေနေလ႕ရွိသည္။ ဒိုဘီကုလား၊ ကုလားမၾကီးမ်ားထံမွ အကၤ်ီကို က်ယ္သီးမတတ္ပဲ ေခါက္နည္း၊ ကုတ္အကၤ်ီ ေခါက္နည္း၊ အကၤ်ီအမ်ိဳးအစားအလိုက္ မီးေၾကြတိုက္နည္းမ်ားကို ေလ႕လာရပါသည္။ ထိုသူတို႕သည္ အလြန္ ေရာင္႕ရဲ တင္းတိမ္တတ္ၾကေသာ လူမ်ဳိးမ်ားပါ။သူတို႕သည္ အလြန္ဆင္းရဲၾကပါသည္။ သို႕ရာတြင္ ေဒ၀ါလီေန႕မ်ိဳးတြင္ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္တို႕ အိမ္သို႕ခ်ပါတီ မ်ားလာေပးပါသည္။

    ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္သည္ ငယ္စဥ္က အလြန္လွခ်င္ပါသည္။ (ယခုတြင္ေတာ႕ အလြန္ အရုပ္ဆိုးခ်င္ပါသည္။) မိခင္ၾကီးက ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္အတြက္ လိုအပ္သည္႕ အ၀တ္အစားမ်ားကို ငယ္စဥ္ကတည္းက ေရြးခ်ယ္၍ ဆင္ၿမန္းေပးပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ဘ၀တြင္ ႏိုင္ငံၿခားေရာက္သည္ အထိ ကိုယ္တိုင္ အကၤ်ီမ၀ယ္ ၀တ္ပါ။ ၀ယ္ ၀တ္ဖို႕ လည္း နားမလည္ပါ။ ႏိုင္ငံၿခားသြားရန္ စီစဥ္သည္႕ အခါတြင္ မိခင္ၾကီး စီစဥ္ေပးလိုက္ေသာ အ၀တ္အထည္မ်ားၿဖင္႕သာ ေနထိုင္ခဲ႕ပါသည္။ ထိုေၾကာင္႕ ရံဖန္ရံခါ မိတ္ေဆြအေပါင္း အသင္းမ်ားထံမွ အကၤ်ီအသစ္မ်ား လက္ေဆာင္ရလ်င္ မ၀တ္ရက္ပါ။ သိမ္းထားပါသည္။ မွတ္မွတ္ရရ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ဂ်ပန္သို႕ သြားသည္႕ အခါက ေလးေဘးထုပ္ထဲမွာ ပါလာေသာ ရွပ္အကၤ်ီေလးမ်ားကို မိခင္ၾကီးက စီစဥ္ေပးထားပါသည္။ ထူဆန္းစြာပင္ ရွပ္အကၤ်ီတစ္တည္မွာ ၿမန္မာႏိုင္ငံမွာ ခ်ဳပ္လိုက္ေသာ Made in Myanmar ဟု ပါရွိသည္႕ Export အထည္ၿဖစ္ေနသည္။ ဘယ္႕ႏွယ္ ၿမန္မာၿပည္က ပို႕လိုက္ပါတယ္ ၿမန္မာၿပည္ထဲကို ေလေဘးအေနနဲ႕ ၿပန္၀င္လာတယ္။ ငါ ဂ်ပန္ကို ၿပန္ယူသြားၿပီး ၿပန္ထားခဲ႕မယ္ဟု ၾကံဳး၀ါကာ ဂ်ပန္မွ ၿပန္သည္႕ အခါတြင္ ထုိေလေဘးထည္မ်ား အားလံုးကို ထားရစ္ခဲ႕ပါသည္။

    မႏ ၱေလးတြင္ ထိုစဥ္အခါက ေလေဘးတန္းႏွင္႕ အေဟာင္းတန္းဟူ၍ ႏွစ္ေနရာ ရွိပါသည္။ ဘယ္နယ္႕ ေလေဘးတန္းက အေဟာင္းတန္းမဟုတ္ဘူးလားလို႕ ေမးဖြယ္ရာရွိပါတယ္။ မဟုတ္ပါ။ ေလေဘးတန္းက ေလေဘးအေဟာင္ထည္မ်ားကိုသာ ေရာင္းပါသည္။ အေဟာင္းတန္းသည္ ထုိစဥ္က ေစ်းခ်ဳိအေနာက္ဘက္ ၂၆-လမ္း အစနားေလာက္တြင္ ရွိပါသည္။ ယခုမရွိေတာ႕ဘူးလို႕ ထင္ပါသည္။ ထိုအေဟာင္းတန္းတြင္ ခိုးရာပါပစၥည္းမ်ား အလြန္တရာမ်ားၿပားပါသည္။ အ၀တ္အထည္မ်ားသာမက အၿခားလူသံုးပစၥည္းမ်ားလည္း ေရာင္းၾကပါသည္။ ရံဖန္ရံခါ ထိုအေဟာင္တန္းမွ လူမ်ားလည္း ေလေဘးတန္းသို႕ လာကာ အထည္မ်ား ၀ယ္တတ္ၾကပါသည္။

    ေလေဘးထည္မ်ားသည္ ပိုးသတ္ေဆးမ်ား ၿဖန္းထား ပရုတ္မ်ား ထည္႕ထားသၿဖင္႕ ေရာဂါကင္းရွင္းပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ ငယ္စဥ္က ေလေဘးထုပ္ေဖါက္လွ်င္ ထိုအ၀တ္ပံု အေဟာင္းထဲတြင္ လူးလိမ္႕ ေဆာ႕ကစားပါသည္။ အ၀တ္အထည္မ်ားကို ေဂါင္ထည္၊ အလယ္ထည္၊ အက်ထည္ အၿဖစ္ သံုးမ်ိဳး သံုးစား ခြဲကာ သန္႕စင္ရသည္။ ထို႕ေနာက္ သင္႕ေတာ္ေသာ တံဆိပ္မ်ားကို အကၤ်ီက်ယ္သီးတန္း၏ ေအာက္ေၿခ အတြင္းဖက္တြင္ ရိုက္ႏွိတ္ကာ ဒိုဘီေပးရပါသည္။ အိပ္ေထာင္ႏိုက္၍ လြတ္သြားေသာ အရာမွန္သမွ်ကို ဒုိဘီကုလားမ်ား ရၾကပါသည္။ ထို႕ေနာက္ ဒိုဘီခ၊ စက္ခ်ဳတ္ခ၊ ၿပင္ခ မ်ားကို တြက္ခ်က္ကာ သင္႕တင္႕ေလ်ာက္ပတ္ေသာ ေစ်းႏႈန္းၿဖင္႕ ေရာင္းၾကပါသည္။ ေစ်းေရာင္းၿခင္းသည္ အလြန္စကားေၿပာရေသာ အလုပ္ၿဖစ္သည္။ ေစ်း၀ယ္သူ တစ္ေယာက္က ၀တ္ၾကည္႕၍ မေတာ္သည္႕ အကၤ်ီကို ေတာ္သည္ဟု ထင္ေအာင္၊ မေကာင္းသည္႕ အကၤ်ီကို ေကာင္းသည္ဟု ထင္ေအာင္ ေၿပာရသည္မွာ မလြယ္ေသာ လိမ္ညာရေသာ အလုပ္တစ္ခုပါ။ ေစ်းႏႈန္းကိုလည္း ေစ်း၀ယ္သူ မဆစ္ ဆစ္ေအာင္ ေစ်းေခၚယူရပါသည္။ ထိုစဥ္က ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္က ရွစ္တန္းအရြယ္ပါ။ ယေန႕ ထိုကဲ႕သို႕ေသာ လူမ်ိဴးမ်ား ထံ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ေစ်း၀ယ္လွ်င္ မဆစ္တတ္ေတာ႕ပါ။ သူ႕တို႕၏ နည္းပရိယာယ္မ်ားကို သိသည္။ သို႕ရာတြင္ ထိုေစ်းေရာင္းေနသူ၏ သမာအာဇီ၀ တ၀မ္းတထြာ ရွာစားေနရၿခင္းကို သနား၍ မဆစ္ရက္ပါ။ ေနာက္ၿပီး ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ ကိုယ္တိုင္ ေၿပာင္းလဲသြားတာလည္း ၿဖစ္ပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ ကိုယ္တိုင္ စကားေၿပာနည္းသြား၊ ေႏွးသြားၿခင္းပါ။ ေစ်းေရာင္းေနသူမ်ားကို ယွဥ္ၿပိဳင္၍ ေစ်း မဆစ္ခ်င္ေတာ႕ပါ။

    ေစ်း၀ယ္သူမ်ားသည္ လူမ်ိဳးစံုလင္ပါသည္။ ေတာသူ ေတာင္သား မ်ားမွအစ၊ သူခိုး၊ ဘိန္းစား၊ အရက္သမား၊ဖက္ရွင္ ဓါတ္ပံု ဆရာ၊ အဆိုေတာ္၊ ရုပ္ရွင္ မင္းသား၊ မင္းသမီး၊ တိုင္းရင္းသား လူမ်ိဳးမ်ား၊ အစရွိသၿဖင္႕ ေပါမ်ားၾကပါသည္။ ေလေဘးတန္းတြင္ ပိတ္ရက္မရွိပါ။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္မိဘႏွစ္ပါး အပါအ၀င္၊ အၿခားေလေဘးေရာင္းသူမ်ားသည္ တရက္မွ မနားၾကပါ။ ေန႕စဥ္ ေန႕တိုင္း ဆိုင္ထြက္ၾကပါသည္။ အိမ္ေတာ္ရာ ဘုရား ပြဲေစ်းေန႕ အေတားအတြင္းေတာင္ ဆိုင္ဖြင္႕ ၾကပါသည္။ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္ မွတ္မိသမွ် သူတို႕ နားၾကသည္အခ်ိန္သည္ သၾကၤန္ေန႕ရက္မ်ားသာ ၿဖစ္သည္။

    ထို႕ေနာက္ အိမ္ေတာ္ရာ ေလေဘးတန္းသည္ ၁၉၈၉-၉၀ ၀န္းက်င္တြင္ ၁၉-လမ္းသို႕ ေရႊ႕ေၿပာင္းသြားရကာ ယခုအခါ ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်း ေလေဘးဆိုင္မ်ား ဟု လူအမ်ား သိရွိၾကပါသည္။ ထိုေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသုိ႕ ေရာက္သည္႕ အခ်ိန္တြင္ ကြ်ႏ္ုပ္သည္ ၁၀ တန္းကို ေအာင္ၿမင္ၿပီးစ ၿဖစ္ကာ ထိုေစ်းေလာကမ်ား တတ္အပ္သည္႕ အ႒ာရပ္သ ၁၈-ပါးကို ကြ်မ္းက်င္ ပိုင္ႏိုင္ တဖက္ကမ္း ခတ္ေလၿပီ။

    အနႏၱေမတၱာၿဖင္႕
    ဘေကာင္း

    ဆက္ႏြယ္ေနေသာ အၿခား အေၾကာင္းအရာ
  • [ ေညာင္ပင္ေစ်းသစ္မွ ေလေဘးေလာက ]
  • Wednesday, October 17, 2007

    Conclusion on George Orwell Thesis


    ေအာက္ေဖၚၿပပါ အေၾကာင္းအရာ မ်ားသည္ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္ ႏွင္႕ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္၏ မိတ္ေဆြေကာင္း ညႊန္႕-san တို႕ ပူေပါင္း၍ ၿပဳစုေရးသားခဲ႕ေသာ George Orwell စားတမ္းကို အဆံုးသပ္သည္႕ အေနၿဖင္႕ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္တို႕၏ အၿမင္ သေဘာထားမ်ားကို အတိုခ်ဳပ္ ေကာက္ခ်က္ခ် ေရးသားထားၿခင္းၿဖစ္ပါသည္။ ထိုစဥ္က ကန္႕သတ္ထားေသာ အခ်ိန္တုိေလးအတြင္း ၾကိဳးစားပမ္းစား အၿမန္ေရးသားခဲ႕ရသည္႕ အတြက္ အခ်ိဳ႕အေရးအသားမ်ား Grammerအသံုးအႏံုးမ်ားသည္ ယခုအခ်ိန္တြင္ ၿပန္ဖတ္ၾကည္႕ေသာအခါ အဂၤလိပ္စာအမွားမ်ားကို ေတြ႕ရပါသည္။ ထိုကဲ႕သို႕ ၿဖစ္ၿခင္းသည္ အဂၤလိပ္စာအေရးအသားတြင္ မက ၿမန္မာစာ အေရးအသားမ်ားတြင္ လည္းၿဖစ္ေလ႕ရွိပါသည္။ လြန္ခဲ႕ေသာ ၅-ႏွစ္ ၆-ႏွစ္ ခန္႕က ေရးခဲ႕ေသာ စာမ်ားကို ၿပန္ဖတ္ၾကည္႕မိပါက စိတ္တိုင္းမက်သည္မ်ားကို အလြန္တရာေတြ႕ရပါသည္။ သို႕ရာတြင္ ဆိုးဆိုး၀ါး၀ါးၾကီးမ်ား မွားထားကို မေတြ႕ရသည္၄င္း၊ ထို႕အၿပင္ မိမိ၏ အေရးအသားမ်ား ကို ၿပန္လည္ဖတ္ရႈ႕ကာ ထိုစဥ္က ေရးနည္းေရးဟန္ကို အမွတ္ရေစရန္၄င္း၊ ထိုစဥ္က ၿပဳစုခဲ႕ေသာ စာတမ္းအား ထပ္မံၿပဳၿပင္ၿခင္းမလုပ္ေတာ႕ပဲ ယခင္အတိုင္း တင္ၿပထားပါသည္။ အဂၤလိပ္စာဖတ္သူမ်ား အခ်ိဳ႕ Grammer အမွားမ်ားကို ေတြ႕ရွိခဲ႕ပါက နားလည္စြာၿဖင္႕ ၿပင္ဆင္ဖတ္ရႈ႕ ေပးပါဟု ေတာင္ပန္အပ္ပါသည္။

    I. George Orwell [Childhood & Student]
    II. George Orwell [Police Sergeant & The Life after Burma]
    III. George Orwell [Critical and Political Writing]
    IV. George Orwell [Opposition to Imperialism]
    V. George Orwell [The Becoming of Burmese Days]
    VI. George Orwell [The Characteristics of Burmese Days]
    VII. George Orwell [The Burma of George Orwell]
    VIII. George Orwell [His Existence in Burmese Environment]

    By doing this thesis, I learned culture and the custom of Burmese people at that time, and the way they thought and the words they used. I also learned that most of the Burmese words developed from Indian words and some from English and Chinese words. People from other Asian countries have changed the way they dress from their traditional dress to western style. But the way Burmese people dress today is pretty much same as the way people dressed in colonial time. Besides monks and students still start and lead the political movement nowadays as George Orwell described in his novel “Shooting an Elephant” .

    Burmese people also have maintained their religious belief from time to time. As Burmese people are Buddhists they still build pagodas and set animals free. As I am a Buddhist I have to disagree with the way George Orwell wrote about Buddhist monks in “Shooting an Elephant”. According to him, Buddhist monks had nothing to do except stand on the street corners and jeer at Europeans. From my point of view, that jeering at foreigners was a part of the political movement. They just wanted to show their rejection of the foreign government. It is not true that a Buddhist monk has nothing to do. They have to live under strict disciplines of Buddhism.

    I am glad that I chose this thesis because I know much matter about my country and I understand George Orwell’s view of my country.

    Works Cited
    Michael, Shelden. Orwell: The Authorised Biography. London: Mandarin Paperbacks,1992.

    George, Orwell. Collected Essays. London: Secker & Warburg, 1961.

    Bernard, Oldsey, and Joseph Browne. Critical Essays on George Orwell. Boston, Massachusetts: G. K. Hall & Co, 1986.

    Koji, Watanabe. George Orwell: Seminars On Modern English And American Literature No.18. Kyoto: Yamaguchi Shoten Ltd, 1985.

    Peter, Stansky, and William Abrahams. Orwell: The Transformation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980.

    Yasuharu, Okuyama. George Orwell. Waseda University Press,1983.

    Roberta, Kalechofsky. George Orwell. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co, 1983.

    George, Orwell. 1984. New York: Penguin Group, 1961.

    George, Orwell. Burmese Days. England: Martin Secker & Warburg Ltd, 1986.

    Richard I, Smyer. Animal Farm: A Student’s Companion to the Novel. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co, 1988.

    U Ba, Kaung. “Burmafication” Myanmar Longi and Changing Fashion (2002): Online. Internet. 14 Nov. 2005.

    George, Orwell. The Orwell Reader. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc, 1984.

    Aiko, Watanabe. Jinshutoteikokuishiki. Akio Kudo(ed.) Shizukanaruchushin . Tokyo: Nanundo, 2001.

    Fumio, Takabatake, trans. 動物農場 Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten, 2004.

    Seisuke, Miyamoto , and Kazuhiro Doi, trans. ビルマの日日. Tokyo: Otowa Shobo,1980.

    George, Orwell. Keep the Aspidistra Flying: The Complete Works of George Orwell. 4 vols. London: Secker & Warburg, 1987.

    George, Orwell. The Road to Wigan Pier: The Complete Works of George Orwell. 5 vols. London: Secker & Warburg, 1986.

    Aung San, Suu Kyi. Freedom from Fear. England: Penguin Books,1995.

    VIII. George Orwell [His Existence in Burmese Environment]


    3.His Existence in Burmese Environment
    When Orwell arrived in Burma, he was 19 years old. Orwell, who was just graduated from Eton, famous public school in England, left the motherland on October 27th,1922 as a police sergeant for colonial job when his friends were enjoying at Oxford or Cambridge. At November 29th of the same year, he arrived in Mandalay, central city of Burma. In Mandalay he had attended provincial police training. After that, he performed the duties in the cities of Irrawaddy delta region; Myaungmya, Katha, Twente, Moulmein.

    By the time Orwell arrived in Burma, there were violent strikes against English government. In former days of Kipling’s poem “Mandalay”, Burmese people were simple and naïve, though in those days of Burmese people were different when colonial administration was suppressing. They were confrontation against to English and English government became more and more severe. When Orwell reached Mandalay, most of temples were quiet and the situation was so hard in the town. Many riots happened one month before, for example, priests fought with knifes against English and cut the nose of English and cut the nose of English police sergeant.

    During over hundred years under English colonization, the period of fighting against English called Dark Ages began three years before Orwell’s arrival. Such strike was caused by rejection of mending Burmese rules and regulations as a result of the Government of India Act, 1919. In 1920, the strike ignited by Rangoon University students spread all over the country against to English colonialism. Besides, the boycott against using English products led by monks became much stronger. During such period, the graduate of Eton, Orwell arrived in colonial area as a police sergeant.

    When his arrival in Burma, nineteen years old Orwell accepted himself as a socialist and a pessimist on imperialism and colonialism of English government. He might think he would be better on Burmese people rather than other police.

    He had had such like this happen; In one evening of November 1924, at Pagoda Road station in Rangoon, one of the Burmese University student who was playful with his friends slipped and bumped into a thin English police. The police fall down from ladder, lost his temper and intended to hit the boy’s head with his stick. However, he was in short hesitation and hit across the back instead of student’s head. After observing this incident, nearby University students gathered round him to protest against his treatment of schoolboy.

    Four and a half years of his stay in Burma, Orwell had no closed friend in white people society. As described in Orwell’s Literary Work, vol.4 he could make friends with many people in short time and keep friendship with them till death. However, why could he not make friend with even one of English people in his four and a half years in Burma? It could be accepted that he could not make friend with Burmese people because Burmese people accepted him as just enemy police, even if he had no bad temper to native people, as a result of bad relationship between English and Burmese in history.

    Roger Beadon, who was one of his colleagues in training school, said “ Orwell was a good boy. In his free time, he always read books in his room. Although we used to go playing golf or dance, he seemed to be no interest. We had never seen him together with a woman during this period”.

    Although English themselves could be able to make closed friendship easily when it was impossible to make friend with Burmese people who looked English police as their enemy. He could not make even a friend. The reason for his failure to make friend with his native people might be that he, himself, stayed aloof from English society because there might be a conflict between oppressor and suppressor in his mind. Although he thought there was no reliable person to tell his feeling in surrounding, an English man was present.
    “I remember a night I spent on the train with a man in the
    Educational Service, a stranger to myself whose name I
    never discovered. It was too hot to sleep and we spent the
    night in talking. Half an hour’s cautious questioning
    decided each of us that the other was ‘safe’; and then for
    hours, while the train jolted slowly through the pitch-
    black night, sitting up in our bunks with bottles of Beer
    handy, we damned the British Empire-damned it from the
    inside, intelligently and intimately. It did us both good.
    But we had been speaking forbidden things, and in the
    haggard morning light when the train crawled into
    Mandalay, we parted as guiltily as any adulterous
    couple.” The Road to Wiger Pier ,135.

    In addition, there was embarrassment to him by bullying superior during his service period. “De Vine introducing Blair as ‘a highly educated sort of chap, ha, yes; Blair was eaten and bought up, ha, ha, sorry, brought up at Eton.’”. George Orwell: A Life, Bernard Crick, 156. From this tiny scrap of information, “ De Vine”, saying that he was “a difficult and probably bullying superior, one who sneered at him for having been to Eton”.

    Orwell also described about characters of Burmese people reacting to him in the surrounding. He began Shooting an Elephant,1950 with this declaration:
    “In Moulmein, in lower Burma, I was hated by large
    numbers of people… the only time in my life that I have
    been important enough for this to happen to me. I was
    sub-divisional police officer of the town, and in an
    aimless, petty kind of way anti-European feeling was
    very bitter”. Collected Essays, 15.

    Moreover, there were also events of Orwell reacted as an English governor to Burmese people disturbing him. He wrote in The Road to Wiger Pier, that he responded to the old Burmese man.

    Nevertheless, whenever he did such suppression on native people, he hated himself and felt lonely more and more. Additionally, he also hated his native men who never care what they did wrongly.

    But as typical custom of other English people, but except for the common soldiers, and wealthy family, Orwell did have a servant.

    In December 1926, he was transferred to Katha, the city north to Mandalay. He could take long leave as he would get five years service in next November. After transfer to Katha, he was ill severely and took leave. On July 1st, he got permission and took leave five months and twenty days long from July12nd. Orwell recovered after arrival of his native town. At the end of November, he made his parents surprise by showing his resignation letter. He got permission for resignation on 1st January, 1928. At that time, he was twenty four years old.

    Metta,
    Bakaung

    I | II | III | IV | V | VI | VII | VIII

    VII. George Orwell [The Burma of George Orwell]


    3. The Burma of George Orwell
    It was very sad to find out the Burma in Burmese Days was so inferior under British Administration.

    In Burmese Days George Orwell described the city, Mandalay, as being dusty, hot and famous for having “Five main products all beginning with P, namely, pagodas, pariahs, pigs, priests and prostitutes.” The pagodas are still there as are the Buddhist monks who tend them, but the prostitutes, pigs and pariahs(an old, Anglo-Indian term for stray dogs) as keeping a low profile in modern Mandalay.

    After Burma gained independence in 1948, it was the first nation to successfully break free from the British Empire since the U.S. did so in 1776, all the consequences from Colonial age were narrowed down.

    Mandalay has its own very unique culture unlike Rangoon, the capital city of Myanmar nowadays. In fact, Mandalay was a capital city before Rangoon. Every month of the year has its own appropriate festival and Burmese people tend to enjoying and relaxing to those events through out the whole year. After spending 13 months in Mandalay learning the duties of a colonial policeman, those seasonal festivals would have been familiar to George Orwell.

    He would even have the experience watching the traditional entertainment, pwe, usually held during the months of October to December. Pwe can be ranked as the Japanese kabuki show but only as the costume and dialog using in the show are portrayed to Burmese imperial fashion in the Palace. The stages are settled in public blocking the street and standing face to the open road. Everyone can watch the show standing or with early reserved seats. It usually consists of singing, dancing and comedy skits. Orwell described one such performance in Burmese Days:
    The music struck up and the pwe-girl began dancing again. Her
    face was powdered so thickly that it gleamed in the
    lamplight like a chalk mask with live eyes behind it … The
    music changed its tempo, and the girl began to sing in a
    brassy voice…[she] turned round and danced with her
    buttocks protruding to wards the audience. Her silk longyi
    [sarong] gleamed like metal. With hands and elbows still
    rotating she wagged her posterior from side to side. Then-
    astonishing feat, quite visible through the longyi- she began
    to wriggle her buttocks independently in time with the music.
    Burmese Days, 108.

    The pwe lasts all night, with the final curtain descending at dawn, but in Orwell’s day there was no mountain of speakers on either side of the stage blasting music and voices over a wide radius of neighborhood. Modern musical instruments and arrangements have been set up in pwe these days.

    In an essay written in 1936 titled Shooting an Elephant, Orwell related how, as a policeman going about his duties, the Burmese often baited him. “The insults hooted after me when I was at a safe distance got badly on my nerves,” he wrote. At the time Orwell served his stint, anti-British sentiment was on the rise, so much so that, as he described it, “If a European woman went through the bazaars alone somebody would probably spit betel juice over her dress.” Buddhist monks were the vanguards of this hectoring form of resistance and, according to Orwell, “None of them seemed to have anything to do except stand on the street corners and jeer at Europeans.”

    Much of this discontent was caused by what the British termed the Shoe Questions- that is, the Europeans’ steadfast refusal to remove their shoes upon entering a Buddhist temple or other holy places. So insistent were the British upon retaining their footwear that when they found they were unable to coax Burmese bystanders into carrying them piggyback over the consecrated ground, many resorted to a boycott of touring the temples altogether. Challenge to British authority and a perceived loss of prestige drove the colonials to rule with a paranoid ruthlessness.

    Burma had the highest rate of crime of all the colonies in the British Empire, and so the largest prison in the empire as built near Rangoon. Often the line blurred between true criminals and those motivated by a desire for Burmese independence. It was in this atmosphere of tension that Orwell went about his duties. What is surprising, and a ringing testament to Orwell’s sense of fairness, was that he didn’t blame the Burmese for their actions. In fact, he actually sympathized with them, In Shooting an Elephant Orwell wrote:
    I had already made up my mind that imperialism was an evil
    thing that the sooner I chucked up my job and got out of it
    the better. Theoretically- and secretly of course- I was all
    for the Burmese and all against their oppressors, the British.
    As for the job I was doing, I hated it more bitterly than I can
    perhaps make clear. In a job like that you see the dirty work
    of Empire at close quarters. The wretched prisoners huddling
    in the stinking cages of the lock-ups, the gray, cowed faces
    of the long-term convicts, the scarred buttocks of the men
    who had been bogged with bamboos-all the oppressed me
    with an intolerable sense of guilt. Shooting an Elephant:
    Collected Essays,15.

    Yet Orwell was human and his emotions were in conflict. On the one hand he clearly shared the sentiments of his Burmese Days character John Flory, whose estrangement from his own kind drove him to “long for a native uprising to drown their Empire in blood.” Yet on the other hand, Orwell admitted to feeling the base urge to strike back at his Burmese tormenters, or as he frankly put it in Shooting an Elephant, “I thought the greatest joy in the world would be to drive a bayonet into a Buddhist priest’s guts.” In the end, no doubt fearing the loss of his own sanity, Orwell quit the imperial police and, once back in England, began writing about his experiences.

    In Burma, since colonial age until now, three major masses of people forming the Burmese social activities- monks, students, military. During the uprising against to British Colony, those three major masses allied together in order to strike back British Colony. They all boycotted and against all the Imperial services and British men.

    I | II | III | IV | V | VI | VII | VIII

    VI. George Orwell [The Characteristics of Burmese Days]


    2. The Characteristics of Burmese Days
    One of the most surprising factors in Burmese Days was that George Orwell described his amazing ability to understanding of local spoken languages. It always amazed to present Burmese readers when they found out that some words using in Burmese Days are still valid to the present time. In fact, not all the words are actual Burmese words.

    During the British colonization in Burma, the country has been influenced by the culture of Indian, Chinese and English men. Indian workers were almost everywhere. Chinese businessmen took the every opportunity of business in Burma. And British administration and people are playing major role during this era in Burma.

    British colony brought Indian cheap labors into Burma under its law and regulation in order to replace the position held by Burmese people. The consequence was that Burma naturally adopted certain words from those new intruders in her daily life style. It impacted the evolution of Burmese language and culture. Burmese people are still using some words without awareness of its origin as its own mother words inheritance from Indian, Chinese and English until now.

    George Orwell used the mixture of Burmese and Indian original words in his Burmese days. Those words occurred quite frequently using it to describe person, character or scene. The question is why he used those words without altering or converting into English words and so it would make every kind of readers able to understand the meaning.

    By reading the mixture of those words in Burmese Days, his novel is shouting the voice of culture combination in Burma under British Administration. One can easily draw the picture of general life style and how people communicate at certain extent during that time. Even in Burmese Days, people of Indian, Burmese, Chinese and English are playing proportionally in different role.

    It would be just the fact that he wrote it as a steam of water flow naturally influenced by local spoken language in his daily life or he was very keen to express the precise description of actual characters and environments. At any rate, it was quite impressive that his ability adapting properly to foreign language.

    It occurred to Burmese readers that he was a man of truly understanding not only to the usage of languages but also to the culture and the political relation among English, Indian and Burmese people. Burmese Days also gave the impression of how English and Indian people saw and interpreted the culture of Burma by that time.

    He used the words “shikoed” in past tense verb form at “As Ba Taik advanced he shikoed” Burmese Days, p.4 l.24, one will not able to find that word in any kind of English dictionary. He might had been invented the new English word from Burmese.

    In Burmese “shikoe” means paying respect to elderly person, monks or Buddhist statue by putting palms together and slightly bend the body gesture forward.

    When English men came and colonized Burma, they took the advantage of Burmese’s greeting culture, and even elder and respectful Burmese people were forced to “shikoe” English young men in a way of suppressing more than greeting. When Burmese people, especially Burmese Patriots, see other Burmese are in that sort of situation, it became one of the driving gears to uprising of anti-colony movement.

    It was not only about forcing Burmese people to “shikoe” English men but also forcing to call “thakin”. Burmese word “thakin” means “master” in English. No Burmese people ever call others “thakin” even they are serving as servant. From the point of view of English people, they wanted to be called as “thakin”, master, but Burmese people tend not to call. In Burmese Days George Orwell had been expressed that sort of usage in the dialog of Ko S’la, Mr Flory’s servant, whenever he speak of Mr.Flory.

    During the days of British Colony in Burma because of suppressing in manners and languages, a group of university student organized to form “thakin” organization and started putting “thakin” in front of their name. The philosophy of “thakin” organization was that Burmese are “thakin” because they were born and grow and live in Burma. So English men are not “thakin” in Burma. They even condemned the people who call “thakin” to English men. Later that for those who put “thakin” in front of their name was sentenced to 6 months in prison by British law.

    As George Orwell was an English man and imperial police sergeant, he must have been called “thakin” during those days in Burma. He must also have a sense that Burmese people would not like the fact that the describing unbalance situation between local and foreign people in his Burmese Days but it was the reality of society in those days. And those realistic descriptions attracted people politically and historically in recent days.

    Much of the book’s beauty comes from Orwell’s eye for detail. Perhaps more though-provoking are Orwell’s snatches of dialogue, so disturbing that they could only have been taken from real-life examples and so it was. Consider this exchange between a member of the club and the club butler:
    “Butler!”
    “Yes, master?”
    “How much ice have we got left?”
    “About 20 pounds, master. Will only last today, I think.
    I find it very difficult to keep ice cool now.”
    “Don’t you talk like that, damn you-‘I find it very difficult!’
    Have you swallowed a dictionary? ‘Please, master, can’t keeping
    ice cool’-that’s how you ought to talk. We shall have to sack this
    fellow if he gets to talk English too well. I can’t stick with
    servants who talk English. D’you hear, butler?” Burmese Days, 23.

    The common sense behind George Orwell’s realistic expression of conversation gave readers the picture of colonial environment.

    His description:
    In the living-room behind the curtain a table was already set out
    with a huge bowl of rice and a dozen of plates containing
    curries, dried prawns and sliced green mangoes. U Po Kyin
    waddled to the table, sat down with a grunt and at once
    threw himself on the food. Ma Khin, his wife, stood behind
    him and served him ….. With the bowl close to his nose he
    stuffed the food into himself with swift greasy fingers,
    breathing fast. Burmese Days, 10.

    It shows the typical Burmese breakfast table from certain region of the country. Generally, typical Burmese people eat big amount of rice in the morning as breakfast and mangoes are seasonal fruit, which is only available from the month of February until June. It is a period of hot season.

    His description also symbolized the Burmese culture eating rice with hand, which is slightly changing the habit at the present time in most capital cities. But it is clear enough that George Orwell could describe the manner of one Burmese man at his breakfast table.

    For the Burmese readers, usage like “Ingaleik fashion” Burmese Days page 11, line 8; “paso of Mandalay silk” Burmese Days page 11, line 16; are very specific description of the writing about Burmese items. It gives a good sense of real Burmese feeling to the Burmese readers.

    Obviously the word “Ingaleik” means English, and Burmese people also pronounce “English” as “Ingaleik” in its own tongue. It sounds very typical pronouncing it as “Ingaleik” except some peculiar educated people.

    George Orwell did his purpose successfully giving a picture of Burmese man’s room decoration into the eye of Burmese people vividly. He must have understood the degree of variation of certain Burmese words after living in the country half of decade.

    And “paso of Mandalay silk” gave a vision of paso; Burmese wearing for men, usually made from Mandalay with good quality of silk which is still very popular until recent time. So one reader will easily pick up the idea of “paso of Mandalay silk” must be a quality wearing with decent pattern of embodies on it.

    In fact, Mandalay has very unique custom, unlike any other cities in the country as it was the last dynasty of Burmese monarchy. The dialog, the traditional wearing and its design are still demonstrating the remaining characteristic of monarchy.

    George Orwell referred “longyi” describing of woman wearing fashion instead of “paso”. The description:
    Ma Hla May was a woman of twenty-two or –three, and
    perhaps five feet tall. She was dressed in a longyi of pale
    blue embroidered Chinese satin, and a starched white muslin
    ingyi on which several gold lockets hung…” Burmese Days,
    51.

    In fact, the Burmese “longyi” a sarong-like nether garment is an integral part of the Burmese national dress worn by men as well as the fairer sex. It is basically a piece of cloth sown into a cylindrical tube, slipped over the head by men and stepped into by the women and tucked in at the waist. Men and women however fasten their “longyi” at the waist in different ways. Men fold the garment into two panels and knot it neatly at waist level. In George Orwell days the knot was tied neatly and sported a triangular flap. For the ladies it is a wrap-around skirt tucked in at the side of the waist. It may be wrapped from right to left, which is more common, or from left to right, depending on the comfort of the wearer. The term “longyi” refers to this nether garment in general for both men and women. To further differentiate between men and women wear, the garment for men is know as “paso”, as George Orwell’s description “paso” in U Po Kyin’s wearing, and for women ”htamein” but there were no “htamein” expression in Burmese Days except “longyi” referring to women. But it is still true to saying the word “longyi” for women wearing.

    Understanding through this idea, George Orwell described his man, U Po Kyin, in his novel with the character of wearing expensive paso as he gave clear picture of a certain level of Burmese men would wear Mandalay paso since his time in Burma.

    Formerly top wear for the ladies consisted of a waist-length blouse known as an “ingyi” which George Orwell described quite frequently whenever he spoke of Burmese lady wearing. The blouse had a squarish flap that was buttoned at the side, somewhat like the top half of the Chinese Cheongsam. The blouse had no fixed buttons, just loops. Buttons of all shapes and colors would then be fastened on these loops. Each button had a ring through which the loop would be passed and then slipped over the button to keep it in place. There were always five loops for the set of five detachable buttons, one below at the front, three at the side and one at the neckline. The ladies could thus keep a variety of buttons and select them to match the skirt and blouse to be worn. Wealthy ladies wore buttons of gold and diamons, rubies, sapphires, pearls and other precious and semi-precious gems. George Orwell’s Ma Hla May in Burmese Days would be a symbol of wealthy women’s fashion from those days.

    One may noticed that there were U Po Kyin, Ko S’la, Ma Khin, Ma Hla May of Burmese name were outstanding in George Orwell’s characters. “U” is used the honorable attention for the men of around 40 years and later ages. “At seventeen he had tried for a Government appointment,… Po Kyin (he was plain Po Kyin then: honorific U came years later)..” Burmese Days, p.2 l.18 “Ko” is used for calling somewhat friendly rank and to younger ages. “Ma” is used, in general, for calling to the girls or women by friends or same age people but referring to women by another people would be use “Daw”. So that sort of syllable is clearly described in George Orwell’s characters and playing synchronized position in each level. Almost every syllable has its meaning in Myanmar language. Names of towns, names of people, all have meanings.
    And they are interesting. Example:
    Myanmar NamesMeanings 
    AungsucceedSunday born
    HlabeautifulWednesday born
    TaikdeserveSaturday born
    KhinfriendlyMonday born
    NyuntblossomTuesday born
    Sangood fortuneTuesday born
    WinbrightWednesday born
    Yaminbeautiful dancing dollWednesday born
    ZawoutstandingTuesday born

    The table describes typical Burmese names which symbolize not only the meaningful description but also its standard for the day of week when the person was born. If you know the name of Burmese, you can easily tell when the person was born according to the sequence of Burmese alphabets. In the West, you may find a person with the last name "Edison" (Edi+son) like Thomas Edison. That means son of Edi or Edward. Jefferson will mean "son of Jeffery", and so on. Burmese has not last name but named by astrological circulation based upon the time, event and place of the person are born.

    The beauties of George Orwell’s understanding of Burmese culture are not only in the characters of people but also in the way of their thinking and expression of fundamental Buddhist philosophy in Burma. Burmese Days readers will get an idea of how Buddhists though of incarnation and how to achieve good merit in next life by doing good things as building pagodas, offering foods to priests or buying alive fishes and set them free in the river. Burmese Days, p.3 l.31 and p.12 l.35.

    Woman Fashion before Colonial timeMan Fashion before Colonial time


    Woman Fashion during Colonial timeTypical Burmese men at Camp



    Arrangement of “pwe” during Colonial time



    Arrangement of “pwe” at present time


    Greeting gestures(shikoe) of Buddha



    Monk and woman “shikoe” to Buddha image



    People “shikoe” to the monk


    In general the characteristic of Burmese wives are very obedient to husband. As George Orwell portrayed U Po Kyin’s wife, Ma Khin, a very obedient housewife and pretty much tend to believing in religion and even persuaded her husband not to do evil things to others. Burmese Days, 12.

    Some piece of his writings contains the sense of Burmese evoking expression: “Ah ma lay! These cuts are full of dirt” Burmese Days Page 196 line 8 described the exclamation coming out from Burmese man gave certain degree of Burmese expression and George Orwell used quite well in his writing.

    It is not about he applied not only those Burmese words but also he did use certain Indian words in his Burmese Days. “mali” p.16 l.14, “chokra” p.23 l.23, “durwan” p.49 l.16, are pure Indian words which are generally used to call the Indian workers. Because of cheap Indian labors working among the English community, people are naturally referring to the particular type of Indian workers with its own language instead of using with neither English nor Burmese words. “mali” means the gardener, “chokras” means the young Indian boy, and “durwan” means the security guard at the entrance gate. It appeared to the fact that both English and Burmese people used those words as it was to referring to the person, and it became common words in evolution of Burmese language until the present time to calling someone with that particular type of job.

    But it is for sure to saying that George Orwell has this amazing ability to absorb and apply the foreign language giving the taste and vision of the reality to the readers.

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    V. George Orwell [The Becoming of Burmese Days]


    George Orwell and Burma

    1. The Becoming of Burmese Days
    It would not be wrong to saying that the experience he had in Burma was quite enormous for a young police sergeant in different culture. He was also able to travel town to town as his job required, and that made him studying new languages. As he was very keen to learning new languages and his lingual skill made him more convenience not only promoting the role of himself working at imperial service to better position but also to communicating with local people having a chance to understanding of who they were and what they really needed.

    The more he involved into imperial service and made new friends at new environment, the more he learned that there was something wrong with the system and the people. He was not at the right place for his own passion but how could he speak out his judgment as an Imperial Sergeant to the Empire without having his own freedom for the sake of securing his job.

    He lasted five years in Burma and decided to abandon the imperial service for the uncertain life. There was no secure job waiting for him in England. The only passionate desire to write books about what he had seen and experiences in his life, and that force drove him out of Burma to start a new life form not foreseeing of his future. In his essay, Why I write, described why he wanted to write books so much. “In a peaceful age I might have written ornate or merely descriptive books, and might have remained almost unaware of my political loyalties” Why I write, Collected Essays. He also had a natural hatred of authority and made him understanding of the nature of imperialism when he spent five years in an unsuitable profession in Burma.

    Some couple years later he would refer to his life in Burma as ‘five boring years within the sound of bugles’ My Country Right or Left, Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell, but that was a typical understatement.
    The landscapes, especially in Upper Burma, exercised a potent
    hold on his imagination that they took on ‘the qualities of
    nightmare’, he said later, adding that they ‘stayed on hauntingly
    in my mind that I was obliged to write [Burmese Days]… to get
    rid of them’. The Road to Wigan Pier ,101.

    After he accomplished Down and Out in Paris and London, he is ready enough to drive with second gear pushing forward his previous experience in Burma in order to characterize the persons and environment he had met.

    Orwell’s initial attempts to have Burmese Days printed were not encouraging. A publisher in Britain rejected the manuscript and let Orwell to believe that the government world try to suppress it. In actuality the publisher had been warned by his lawyer that the novel was likely to attract lawsuits. Orwell was forced to take his work to America where it was published by Harper’s in 1934, but only after modifications were made. Orwell was asked to change the occupations of some of the characters from civil servants to businessmen, effectively softening his denunciation of the British colonial system.

    The book was well received in the U.S., and the British publisher finally relented after Orwell agreed to modify the story even further. Among the second round of amendments was an attempt to delocalize the story from Katha.

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    IV. George Orwell [Opposition to Imperialism]


    2. George Orwell’s Opposition to Imperialism
    What made him being as an Imperial Police for five years in Burma? What did he learn in Burma except fulfilling his service to the Empire?

    After passing each year in Burma, he became more clearly understanding that he was in the wrong profession, and that the entire system of imperial rule was wrong. But still he could not bring himself to saying such things openly in public until several years after leaving Burma. At some occasion after he became George Orwell, he was dared to voice his feelings bringing into public through his writings.
    Every Anglo-Indian is haunted by a sense of guilt which he
    usually conceals as best he can, because there is no freedom
    of speech, and merely to be overheard making a seditious
    remark may damage his career. All over India there are
    Englishmen who secretly loathe the system of which they are
    part. The Road to Wigan Pier, 135.

    He surely did have the feelings of impact by the imperial administration when he was in Burma working as an Imperial Police and made him realize to see the dishonest and ruined matters within imperial society.

    He would have faced the situation that Burma was in the state of struggling to gain her independence from British Colonization, and Burmese people would not happy with the environment that English men governing the country and absorbing the natural resources under the term Imperialism. He even brought the idea of how British Administration effected on Burma in his Burmese Days. The argument between Flory and Dr. Veraswami shows the great sense of British Administration:
    “How can you make out that we are in this country for any
    purpose except to steal? It’s so simple. The official holds
    the Burman down while the businessman goes through his
    pockets. Do you suppose my firm, for instance, could get its
    timber contracts if the country weren’t in the hands of the
    British? Or the other timber firms, or the oil companies, or
    the miners and planters and traders? How could the Rice
    Ring go on skinning the unfortunate peasant if it hadn’t the
    Government behind it? The British Empire is simply a device
    for giving trade monopolies to the English – or rather to
    gangs or Jews and Scotchmen.” Burmese Days,38.

    He clearly described the situation of Burma under the British political management.

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    III. George Orwell [Critical and Political Writing]


    Literature

    1. Critical and Political Writing
    It is also very interesting to learn George Orwell’s writing with the combination of both political and criticized way to describe human characteristic.

    He believed that his early literary activity was partly the result of a lonely boyhood. He even wrote
    I had the lonely child’s habit of making up stories and
    holding conversations with imaginary persons, and I think
    from the very start my literary ambitions were mixed up with
    the feeling of being isolated and undervalued. Critical
    Essays, 2.

    His novels were pretty much no focusing into particular nationality or race except looking inside closely to the varieties of different cultures and characters of people in a way of experiencing to criticize about it. In fact, he was a true rebellion escaping from the boundary of imperialism.

    His political and critical writings were quite distinct in his later books after Burmese Days, 1934, Coming Up For Air, 1939. Those early books actually characterized the desire and ability of him to break through lies and pretense to find out the truth about a situation or a person. He was also very conscious of the ways in which language could be used to hide the truth, and he shows how government can used language to deceive the people in Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949). This book describes a future world where every word and action is seen and controlled by the state, which had developed a kind of television that can watch people in their own homes, and is changing the language so that the only words left are those for objects and ideas that the government wants the people to know about.

    And also quite fascinate enough to find the similar matter that his conscious of using words in Burmese Days (1934). The way of putting Burmese words in that book could lead readers to meet the understanding of the actual degree of expression but it would quite difficult to have an actual picture of certain expression except Burmese readers. But his usages were more precise and reality of what truly existed and happened in the real world.

    For Orwell, the quality of a language suggests the quality of the society that uses it, so that a government controls a language in order to control completely the people who use it. Orwell recognized the important part that the state must play in a fair society, but he also felt that all human beings need to be able to be private sometimes so that they can be themselves.

    In the plot of Burmese Days, it revolves around the poignant figure of John Flory, a manager of a logging firm based in the fictional town of Kyauktada in Upper Burma. Flory has been in Burma for eight years, speaks fluent Burmese and Hindustani, and has a rare admiration for the locals and their ways. Although there are a handful of other British residents in Kyauktada, Flory feels alienated by his own kind who “Can be at ease in a foreign country only when they are disparaging the inhabitants.” Flory therefore keeps his opinions to himself during obligatory visits to the whites-only club, where the British meet daily to drink and curse the insolence and ingratitude of the natives. His only real friend is Dr.Veraswami, and Indian physician whose enthusiasm for British rule.

    The parallel characterizing of Dr.Veraswami and European Club members with Mr.Flory demonstrated how George Orwell saw through the society under the management of Imperialism. Every conversation with Mr.Flory to Club Members and Dr.Veraswami gave the readers to make their own judgment but he obviously put the idea of what he wanted to say over the lie of human beings behind the mask. It was clear enough to see how colonization absorbed all the natural resources from Burma and spoiled the local people instead of educating.

    Mr.Flory tried to avoid the worst excesses of this world, but to gain any value from the people around him he has to play their games. Humans are social creatures, and Orwell recognized the terrible price that can exact on us when the society we live in has basic premises that are false to fact. In the case of colonial Burma, the central false premise is that there's any basic difference between black and white. Both oppressor and oppressed believe implicitly that the English are more worthy, more capable, more real than then Burmese or Indians. U Po Kyin, the Burmese villain of the piece, was described as having "grasped that his own people were no match for this race of giants i.e. the British." Burmese Days,p.2 l.4.

    After reading Burmese Days, one can easily see the political situation of Burma during colonial era how local people had been inferior while foreigners were being superior. George Orwell gave the vivid image of those situations through Burmese Days.

    George Orwell's writing covers a politically very chaotic period. His first book, Down and Out in Paris and London, was published in 1933, only 16 years after the Russian Revolution. Till 1949, when Nineteen Eighty-Four was published, the world would see the Spanish Civil War, nazism in Germany and fascism in Italy, stalinism and the Moscow show trials in the USSR, and World WarⅡ.

    Most of Orwell’s best writing is political and he is certainly the most important political writer of the post-war years. He fought in the Spanish Civil War (1935 – 37) and wrote about his experiences in Homage to Catalonia, and for many years he wrote essays and articles for newspapers and magazines which were often on political subjects.

    Perhaps his most famous work in a political allegory, Animal Farm (1945), which tells the story of a political revolution that went wrong. The animals on a farm, led by the pigs, drive out their master Jones and take control of the farm, but the purity of their political ides is soon destroyed, and they end by being just as greedy and dishonest as the farmer whom they drove out:
    “Meanwhile life was hard. … Once again all rations were
    reduced, except those of the pigs and the dogs. A too rigid
    equality in rations, Squealer explained, would have been
    contrary to the principles of Animalism. In any case he had
    no difficulty in proving to the other animals that they were
    not in reality short of foods, whatever the appearances might
    be. For the time being, certainly, it had been found
    necessary to make a readjustment of rations (Squealer
    always spoke of it as a ‘readjustment’, never as a
    ‘reduction’) .The animals believed every word of it. Truth to
    tell, Jones and all he stood for had almost faded out of their
    memories. They knew what life nowadays was harsh and bare,
    that they were often hungry and often cold, and that they
    were usually working when they were not asleep. But
    doubtless it had been worse in the old days. They were glad
    to believe so.” Animal Farm ,74.

    As we have seen, the intention driving many writers this century has been the wish to describe things as they really are without being influenced by tradition or convention. George Orwell was one of them staying out of the conventional circle and against all the plotted arrangement by the traditional factors.

    George Orwell, in Nineteen Eighty-Four, give picture of a future world, but his interest is less in the scientific advances that have been made than the purposes these are used for. He is only interested in the effect on the human personality and relation among the society how people behave and bring the form of making human world.

    Nineteen Eighty-Four is the conclusion of George Orwell's writing, both because it was the last book he wrote because of his premature death, and because this was the book that most of Orwell's writing had been a preparation to. Politically Orwell belonged to the Left, and many Leftists accused him of joining the reactionaries with Nineteen Eighty-Four because the book was so obviously anti-communist. But anti-communism is not necessarily a very precise concept as one can be anti-communist in various ways and for various reasons.

    Many of his political ideas were never thought through properly. An anarchist would claim that Orwell's theory is a poor one, because he only wants to do away with authorities. Orwell has no constructive ideas about a different social structure where the reasons for crime would be removed or at least reduced.

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    II. George Orwell [Police Sergeant & The Life after Burma]


    3. Police Sergeant
    Eric Blair had become once at the service of imperial administration as a police sergeant after he graduated from Eton College in 1921. The next logical step for a college student after Eton was to go up to Cambridge or Oxford but since his academic record was a dismal one, and he couldn’t hope reasonably getting a university scholarship. From the fact that his parents did not willingly persuade and tend not to support anymore for his further education, he would have to make a decision to accepting the post as a police sergeant in foreign country, Burma, where his father used to work when he was young. It was also obviously to understand that his parents might want him to find a place in Empire, encouraging him to go to Burma and meet some of his relatives from his mother side including his grandmother.

    No matter whatever made him going to Burma and accepting a colonial job, all that can be said for certain is that young Blair did have a great taste for adventure and his option to becoming a police sergeant would be a logical one.

    He was only nineteen when he started his first long voyage from Liverpool to Rangoon. Once he arrived Burma, he had to attend training school for becoming a police sergeant in order to able to adapt different culture in foreign country. Every one from language classes also had to admit that he was the man with remarkable ability picking up Burmese and Hindu languages so easily.

    During his period in training school, he stayed isolated and usually spent his time alone in his room. No one even got an impression that he would be becoming a famous author in the future. He could be portrayed during his years in police training school as incompetent, unpopular police officer.

    By the end of his first year in Burma, he had satisfied all the requirements of the probationary period in Burma. He was young and had developed into Burmese and Hindustani. A great deal of the paperwork which passed through the typical district head quarters was written in Burmese, so a young officer who could use the language well had an obvious advantage over colleagues who were still struggling with it.

    His first posting after Mandalay was to Myaungmya , some eighty miles west of Rangoon. Like so many other districts in Lower Burma, it was hot, wet and primitive. There were long stretches of tidal forest in the south and endless fields of rice in the north. Leopards and tigers roamed freely in certain parts, and monkeys and crocodiles were plentiful in the southern forests. This was a difficult environment, by anyone’s standards, but Blair performed well during the short period of his stay.

    4. The Life after Burma
    Eric served in Burma for 5 years. And then he came back to Britain with less than 6 months holidays. He had already decided he did not turn back to Burma when he came back. Eric wrote the following reason.
    “When I came home on leave in 1927 I was already half
    determined to throw up my job, and one sniff of English air
    decided me. I was not going back to be a part of that evil
    despotism. But I wanted much more than merely to escape
    from my job. For five years I had been part of an oppressive
    system, and it had left me with a bad conscience:
    Innumerable remembered faces- faces of prisoners in the
    dock, of men waiting in the condemned cells, of
    subordinates I had bullied and aged peasants I had snubbed,
    of servants and coolies---I had got to expiate. I suppose that
    sounds exaggerated; but if you do for five years a job that
    you thoroughly disapprove of , you will probably feel the
    same.” The Road to Wigan Pier,137.

    For a while, he lived together with parents, and sometime he visited A.S.F. Gow who worked as a researcher in Trinity College at Cambridge since 1925. Then he moved to Portobello Road, 10th Street in the winter of 1927. With the help of Ruth Pitter (Poet), he rented and lived at No.10 Portobello Road, London. Starting from that time he began his lonely life although he had lived in London and started writing for 6 months, he did not become author.

    In the spring of 1928, he moved to France and resided at No.6 Rue du Pot de Fer, located at the left side of Paris, where he worked as tutor and as dish cleaner at hotels or restaurants. During this time Eric continued writing novels and Essays.

    In December 1929 he returned to London, and earned as a tutor. Then he started to prepare “Down and Out in Paris and London”. At that time he wandered on the streets, lived at inns and Hops, like a hooligan. Sometime Eric had been seen at Mrs. Mabel Fierz’s house or Ruth Pitter’s house or Richard Rees’ house. After coming back from wandering around the city, he wrote down all the things he just experienced.

    In October 1930, Eric completed the writing of “Down and Out in Paris and London”. In 1931 he lived together with his sister Marjorie who was supported him. On April 1932, Eric had worked as a teacher in Evelyn’s school for fifteen months. On 1933 January 9, the first novel of his “Down and Out in Paris and London” were published by Victor Gollancz.

    At the beginning of December 1933, he was hospitalized for lungs disease after typing draft of “Burmese Days”. In 1934, with the introduction of grandmother, Nellie Limonzin, Eric got a job in Hampstead as a bookshop assistant. Burmese Days was published by Harper & Brothers on 1934, October 25th.

    From June 31st, 1936 to March 30th, he went to northern part of Britain. On 2nd April, Eric returned his house to landlord, and rented the small house called “the store” in Wallington village. During this year, Eric married with Eileen O’Shaughnessy.

    One month after marriage, he started to write “The Road to Wigan Pier”. Before Christmas, he left to Spain. After that, Orwell became a member of POUM (Workers’ Party of Marxist Unification).

    Orwell, as a soldier of POUM in Aragon, went to frontier. At the battle of Huesca, Orwell got wound at neck. He could just whisper for nearly two months, but sudden after that, he regained voice. While some members of POUM fled or were arrested, Orwell, together with Eileen, John McNair of ILP, Stafford Cottman, ran away to Barcelona, Spain. Then he crossed France border on November 23rd, from where Eric came back to England.

    According to his experiences from Wigan and many other places where Eric wandered, he hated the totalitarianism due to his experience in Barcelona although he, himself, was a socialist.

    In July 1937, Orwell and his wife returned to Willington. During March, 1938, Orwell suffered from tuberculosis lung infection and was hospitalized at Preston Hall, Kent with the help of his brother in law, Lawrence O’Shaughnessy. He was not permitted to write but sometime just to write book review. “Homage to Catalonia” was published in April.

    Author L.H.Myers, with the secret name, support three hundred pounds to Orwell after hearing doctor’s advice to Orwell that he should rest at warm place. The couple went to Morocco.

    Eric had lived in Morocco for about 4 months and took rest. On March 30,1939, Mr. and Mrs. Orwell came back to London with original writing of “Coming Up for Air”. At first he stayed at Southwald and went back to Wallington on April 11. Gollancz published “Coming Up for Air” in June.

    During this year, Orwell survived as a breeder of goose, goat and chicken. He lived peacefully by planting fruit trees and writing essays.

    Second World War broke out on September 3rd, 1939. Although Orwell wanted to perform military service for his country, he could not get permission because of his lungs disease.

    His wife Eileen rented and stayed at the house of his brother Lawrence, and worked at censorship department. During the weekend, she used to go back Wallington. Orwell finished “Inside the whale” in the middle of December. He lived in the house of Eileen’s brother from the end of 1939 to January 1940.

    In May 1940, Orwell, together with Eileen, was back to London and resided near Regent’s Park. Then, he served at British army. In January 1941, Orwell began to write London letter current review. He had written this review for about five and half years. On August 18th, he worked at BBC India section with salary of six hundred and forty pounds per year.

    Eric resigned from BBC in November 1943. Then, he performed head of editor post in Tribune. He also quitted from the city defense force.

    In February 1944, Orwell completed “Animal Farm”. Because of its political concerned, this book was not accepted to publish by most publishers. However, Secker & Warburg published the “Animal Farm” which became the best seller. In1946, August, it was also later published by Harcourt, Brace in America.

    In February 1945, he resigned from editor job, and served for Observer as journalist in France, from where he moved to Cologne, Germany. At the time, his wife, Eileen died during an operation at the hospital in Newcastle.

    When Eileen died, Orwell returned to Britain, and then went back to Paris in April. After that he traveled to Germany, Austria and returned to London. During this time, he sent messages to Observer and Manchester Evening News.

    In 1947 he went to Jura Island to write “Nineteen Eighty- Four”. At that time, Orwell’s health turned to bad condition. In Barnhill, located at north of island, Eric rented field house with the help of his friend David Astor. He considered living there for the life long. The field house was far a mile from road. It took 12 hours to reach Glasgow Hospital at where Orwell consulted for his lungs disease. After he lived in the island for one week, Susan Watson took his foster son, Richard, back to him.

    Orwell completely wrote the draft of “Nineteen Eight-Four” in October, 1947. On December 20, he was hospitalized in Hairmyres Hospital , at West Kilbride near Glasgow. He had to stay at hospital till middle of 1948. After that he was trying to complete “1984” by typing continuously without rest, he fell down on bed but he finished it at December.

    In summer of 1949, he was further hospitalized at Cotswolds hospital and his health condition became worse. In June 1949, after publishing 1984, Orwell became famous. (Time magazine issued on November 28, 1983 described that Nineteen Eighty- Four was so far translated into 62 languages and was read by many people.)

    Eric was admitted to London University Hospital in September, 1949. However, he could not get relieve and recovery. At October 13rd of the year, he held wedding ceremony with Sonia Brownell at hospital. According to his friends retold concerning further marriage, Eric thought that he could live for longer life and could write many novels by marriage with Sonia.

    In January 1950, couple of Orwell planned to travel to Sanatorium, Swiss. He thought fresh air in this place could be effective for his lungs infection. At night of 21st January, Eric vomited blood and died immediately.

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